Nitric Oxide (NO) and Arginine as Factors for Increasing Poultry Meat Productivity


Nitric oxide (NO) is intensively synthesized in the embryo of birds. There is evidence that NO mediates myogenesis at the embryonic stage. In this regard, it might be possible to control muscle development and meat productivity by modulating NO synthesis. Using high-precision and a highly sensitive enzymatic sensor, the authors found that it is not the rate of synthesis that correlates with meat productivity, but the rate of NO oxidation to nitrate, which occurs in the tissues of the embryo. In broilers, it is several orders of magnitude higher than in layers. This indicator is solely due to the characteristics of embryonic tissues and is allelically determined. In-ovo arginine supplementation, a source of NO, did not lead to a significant increase in its synthesis and oxidation, but occasionally increased live weight gain, which was likely associated with a deficiency of free arginine and was not directly related to the effect of nitric oxide. Exogenous NO donors were oxidized with the same intensity as endogenous donors. These compounds did not have a significant effect on growth rate. Also, a reduction of 50% in the rate of NO synthesis under the action of a NO synthase inhibitor did not affect this parameter. Thus, regulation of poultry meat productivity is possible by modulating gene expression related to embryonic NO oxidation and ensuring an optimal amino acid and energy equilibrium, rather than by promoting embryonic NO synthesis.

Keywords: Nitric oxide (NO), NO donor compounds, nitrate, arginine, live weight

[1] Vanin, A., Borodulin, R. and Mikoyan, V. (2017). Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes with Natural ThiolContaining Ligands in Aqueous Solutions: Synthesis and Some Physico-Chemical Characteristics (A Methodological Review). Nitric Oxide, vol. 66, pp. 1-9.

[2] Kim, Y., et al. (2000) Cellular Non-Heme Iron Content is a Determinant of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Caspase Inhibition. Journal of Biological Chemistry., vol. 275, pp. 10954- 10961.

[3] Li, J., et al. (1997). Nitric Oxide Reversibly Inhibits Seven Members of the Caspase Family Via SNitrosylation. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 240, pp. 419-424.

[4] Vanin, A. (2016). Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes with Thiol-Containing Ligands as a “Working Form” of Endogenous Nitric Oxide. Nitric Oxide, vol. 54, pp. 15-29.

[5] Lima, E., et al. (2005). Nitrated Lipids Decompose to Nitric Oxide and Lipid Radicals and Cause Vasorelaxation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 39, pp. 532-539.

[6] Titov, V., et al. (2012) Nitric Oxide (NO) in Bird Embryogenesis: Physiological Role and Ability of Practical Use. World’s Poultry Science Journal, vol. 68, pp. 83-95.

[7] Titov, V., et al. (2018) The Role of Nitric Oxide (NO) in the Body Growth Rate of Birds. World Poultry Science Journal, vol. 74, pp. 675-686.

[8] Cazzato, D., et al. (2014) Nitric Oxide Drives Embryonic Myogenesis in Chicken Through the Upregulation of Myogenic Differentiation Factors. Experimental Cell Research, vol. 320, pp. 269-280.

[9] Long, J., et al. (2006). Arginine Supplementation Induces Myoblast Fusion Via Augmentation of Nitric Oxide Production. Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, vol. 27, pp. 577–584.

[10] Anderson, J. (2000). A Role for Nitric Oxide in Muscle Repair: Nitric Oxide–mediated Activation of Muscle Satellite Cells. Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 11, pp. 1859-1874.

[11] Stamler, J. and Meissner, G. (2001). Physiology of Nitric Oxide in Skeletal Muscle. Physiological Reviews, vol. 81, pp. 209-237.

[12] Ulibarri, J., et al. (1999). Nitric Oxide Donors, Sodium Nitroprusside and S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpencillamine, Stimulate Myoblast Proliferation in Vitro. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biolody - Animal, vol. 35, pp. 215-218.

[13] Li, Y., et al. (2016). In Ovo L-Arginine Supplementation Stimulates Myoblast Differentiation but Negatively Affects Muscle Development of Broiler Chicken after Hatching. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol. 100, pp. 167–177.

[14] Fisinin, V., Zhuravlev, I. and Aydinyan, T. (1990). Embryonic Development of Poultry. Moscow: Agropromizdat.

[15] Khan, H., et al. (2012). Expression and Localization of NO Synthase Isoenzymes (iNOS and eNOS) in Development of the Rabbit Placenta. Journal of Reproduction and Development., vol. 58, pp. 231-236.

[16] Rozenboin, I., et al. (2013) The Effect of Monochromatic Photostimulation on Growth and Development of Broiler Birds. General and Comparative Endocrinology, vol. 190, pp. 214-219.

[17] Sobolewska, A., et al. (2011) Myogenesis–Possibilities of its Stimulation in Chickens. Folia Biologica (Krakow), vol. 59, pp. 85-90.