Water Hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) Ethanolic Extract Anti Platelet Activity


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. CVDs are responsible for 37% of deaths in Indonesia. Thrombosis is the main factor causing blood vessel clost in CVDs. Blood vessel clots then affect narrowed blood vessel. This causes strokes. The aim of this study is to determine the antithrombotic effect of water hyacinth ethanolic extract, the effective dose, and the potential to become anticoagulant agent. The water hyacinth was extracted by ethanol 96%. The extract was tested on five groups of mice, each group containing five mice. Each group was tested for fourteen days. Group I and II are fed by extract suspension with varied dose 1 mg/BW and 2 mg/BW. Group III is fed by warfarin as standard. Group IV and V are the positive and negative group, the mice were fed by NaCMC. On the 7th and 14th days, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were conducted. The plasma of group 1-IV mixed with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) as inducer, except plasma of group V used for negative control, did not mixed with ADP. Data analysed by ANOVA and LSD to obtain effective dose. The results showed the difference between PTT and aPTT among the tested groups. Group I and II showed prolonged PT which is 22 and 32 seconds respectively. The control positive showed PT 9.48 seconds on day 7th and 8.22 seconds on day 14th. LSD analysis showed that there is the significant difference between positive control and the other groups. It showed platelet aggregation performed due to the addition of ADP as inducer. There was a significant difference between dose 2 and the negative control group, and there is no significant difference of dose 1. In conclusion, water hyacinth has the antithrombotic activity, the effective dose is 1 mg/BW, and it potential to further developed as anticoagulant agent.


Keywords: antiplatelet, cardiovascular diseases, water hyacinth.

[1] Ain, Q., et al. (2016). Plant Alkaloids as Antiplatelet Agent: Drugs of the Future in the Light of Recent Developments. Frontiers in Pharmacology, p. 7, https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2016.00292.

[2] Bentzon, J. F., et al. (2014). Mechanisms of Plaque Formation and Rupture. Circulation Research, vol. 114, issue 12, pp. 1852–1866, https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302721.

[3] Rodríguez, G. L. A., et al. (2016). Bleeding Risk with Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. PloS One, vol. 11, issue 8, p. 0160046, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 0160046.

[4] Garmo, C. and Burns, B. (2019). Physiology, Clotting Mechanism. Dalam Stat Pearls.

[5] Harter, K., Levine, M. and Henderson, S. O. (2015). Anticoagulation Drug Therapy: A Review. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 11–17, https://doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2014.12. 22933.

[6] Honlah, E., et al. (2019). Effects of Water Hyacinth Invasion on the Health of the Communities, and the Education of Children along River Tano and Abby-Tano Lagoon in Ghana. Cogent Social Sciences, vol. 5, issue 1, p. 1619652, https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2019.1619652.

[7] Huang, E. S., et al. (2011). Long Term Use of Aspirin and the Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding. The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 124, issue 5, pp. 426–433, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2010. 12.022.

[8] Leys, D. (2001). Atherothrombosis: A Major Health Burden. Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 11, issue 2, pp. 1–4.

[9] Maleš, Ž., et al. (2017). Quantitative Analysis of Phenolic Acids and Antiplatelet Activity of Melissa Officinalis Leaf Extracts. Natural Product Communications, vol. 12, issue 1, https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1934578X1701200126

[10] Mishra, R. and Monica. (2019). Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease and Sequential DecisionMaking for Treatment among Women: A Heckman’s Approach. SSM - Population Health, p. 7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100365

[11] Nursidika, P., Saptarini, O. and Rafiqua, N. (2014). Aktivitas Antimikrob Fraksi Ekstrak Etanol Buah Pinang (Areca catechu L) pada Bakteri Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Majalah Kedokteran Bandung, vol. 46, issue 2, pp. 94–99.

[12] Qi, H., et al. (2016). Anti-Platelet Activity of Panaxatriol Saponins is Mediated by Suppression of Intracellular Calcium Mobilization and ERK2/P38 Activation. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, p. 16. DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1160-7

[13] Rorong, J. A., et al. (2012). Phytochemical Analysis of EcengGondok (Eichhorniacrassipessolms) of Agricultural Waste as Biosensitizer for Ferri Photoreduction. AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 34, issue 2, DOI: http://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v34i2.106

[14] Stainer, A. R., et al. (2019). The Metabolites of the Dietary Flavonoid Quercetin Possess Potent Antithrombotic Activity, and Interact with Aspirin to Enhance Antiplatelet Effects. TH Open: Companion Journal to Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 3, issue 3, pp. 244–e258, https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0039- 1694028.

[15] Surgeons, A. A. of O. (2016). Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

[16] Wang, X., et al. (2014). Flavonoid Intake and Risk of CVD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 111, issue 1, pp. 1–11, https://doi.org/10. 1017/S000711451300278X.

[17] WHO. (2002). WHO: Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005. Geneva: World Health Organisation.