Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Higher Education in Preparation for the Industrial Revolution 4.0
Nursing higher education will challenge the dynamics of the work environment in the Industrial Revolution Era 4.0 and they will compete with digital technology. Critical thinking skills as one of the basic competencies must support higher education in preparation for the industrial revolution 4.0. Exploring thinking skills makes nursing students will be trained in their punishment and analysis skills according to their knowledge. Critical thinking skills not only guide students to develop continuing skills, but also help nursing students to be motivated to create innovation in college. The aims of this review is to learn the critical skills needed in higher education to prepare for the industrial revolution 4.0 based on literature understanding. There are 6 (six) important things about Critical Thinking in nursing education in the Industrial Revolution Era 4.0, namely Definition of Critical Thinking, Why do we need to focus on critical thinking in higher education, Why is critical thinking needed in industry 4.0 preparation, Industry Innovation 4.0 and human potential to overcome environmental problems, Critical Thinking in Nursing Education, and Educational Strategies for Developing Critical Thinking in Nursing. These critical thinking skills are suitable for equipping students in higher education before they enter different workplaces. Educational strategies in developing critical thinking skills by supporting the use of questions, small group activities, role plays, debates, use of case studies, journals, simulations, puzzles, problem solving and writing assignments. Nursing students who think critically in line with creative thinking and innovation will be useful to survive in the dynamics of the industrial revolution 4.0 and beyond in the world of the future.
Keywords: Critical Thinking, Nursing Higher Education, Industrial Revolution 4.0
 Ristekdikti. Vol.8.I.2018 1. Media Pustak. 2018;8:1–56.
 Berkow S, Virkstis K, Stewart J, Aronson S, Donohue M. Assessing individual frontline nurse critical thinking. JONA J Nurs Adm. 2011;41(4):168–71.
 Levin-Goldberg J. Teaching Generation TechX with the 4Cs: Using Technology to Integrate 21st Century Skills. J Instr Res. 2012;1:59–66.
 Andreou C, Papastavrou E, Merkouris A. Learning styles and critical thinking relationship in baccalaureate nursing education: A systematic review. Nurse Educ Today. 2014;34(3):362–71.
 RN ES, RN MC. Critical thinking in nursing education: Literature review. Int J Nurs Pract. 2002;8(2):89– 98.
 Burrell LA. Integrating critical thinking strategies into nursing curricula. Teach Learn Nurs. 2014;9(2):53– 8.
 Alegría M, Polo A, Gao S, Santana L, Rothstein D, Jimenez A, et al. Evaluation of a patient activation and empowerment intervention in mental health care. Med Care. 2008;46(3):247.
 Paul SA. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study. Nurse Educ Today. 2014;34(11):1357–60.
 Chan ZCY. Critical thinking and creativity in nursing: Learners’ perspectives. Nurse Educ Today. 2013;33(5):558–63.
 Chan ZCY. A systematic review of critical thinking in nursing education. Nurse Educ Today. 2013;33(3):236–40.
 Morrall P, Goodman B. Critical thinking, nurse education and universities: Some thoughts on current issues and implications for nursing practice. Elsevier; 2013.
 Pitt V, Powis D, Levett-Jones T, Hunter S. The influence of critical thinking skills on performance and progression in a pre-registration nursing program. Nurse Educ Today. 2015;35(1):125–31.
 Chao S-Y, Liu H-Y, Wu M-C, Clark MJ, Tan J-Y. Identifying critical thinking indicators and critical thinker attributes in nursing practice. J Nurs Res. 2013;21(3):204–10.
 Jenkins J, Calzone KA. Establishing the essential nursing competencies for genetics and genomics. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2007;39(1):10–6.
 Jenkins J.F. et.al. Consensus Panel on Genetic/Genomic Nursing Competencies. Essentials of Genetics and Genomics Nursing: Competencies, Curricula Guidelines, and Outcome Indicator [Internet]. Maryland: American Nurses Association.; 2009. Available from: https://www.genome.gov/pages/ careers/healthprofessionaleducation/geneticscompetency.pdf.
 Chang MJ, Chang Y, Kuo S, Yang Y, Chou F. Relationships between critical thinking ability and nursing competence in clinical nurses. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20(21-22):3224–32.
 Kong L-N, Qin B, Zhou Y, Mou S, Gao H-M. The effectiveness of problem-based learning on development of nursing students’ critical thinking: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Nurs Stud. 2014;51(3):458–69.
 Krupat E, Sprague JM, Wolpaw D, Haidet P, Hatem D, O’Brien B. Thinking critically about critical thinking: ability, disposition or both? Med Educ. 2011;45(6):625–35.
 Lovatt A. Defining critical thoughts. Nurse Educ Today. 2014;34(5):670–2.
 Carvalho DP, Azevedo IC, Cruz GKP, Mafra GAC, Rego ALC, Vitor AF, et al. Strategies used for the promotion of critical thinking in nursing undergraduate education: a systematic review. Nurse Educ Today. 2017;57:103–7.
 Carter AG, Creedy DK, Sidebotham M. Evaluation of tools used to measure critical thinking development in nursing and midwifery undergraduate students: a systematic review. Nurse Educ Today. 2015;35(7):864–74.
 Mahmoud HG. Critical thinking dispositions and learning styles of baccalaureate nursing students and its relation to their achievement. Int J Learn Dev. 2012;2(1):398–415.
 Ozkahraman S, Yildirim B. An overview of critical thinking in nursing and education. Am Int J Contemp Res [Internet]. 2011;1(2):190–6.
 Yue M, Zhang M, Zhang C, Jin C. The effectiveness of concept mapping on development of critical thinking in nursing education: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nurse Educ Today. 2017;52:87– 94.
 Hunter S, Pitt V, Croce N, Roche J. Critical thinking skills of undergraduate nursing students: Description and demographic predictors. Nurse Educ Today. 2014;34(5):809–14.