Pharmacological therapy for COVID-19: Where are we now and where are we going?


Background: Up to the point of writing this review, there is no scientific evidence of any effective medical therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this review, we attempted to discuss the current summary of evidence of some medication, currently in trial for the treatment of COVID-19.

Material and Methods: We have done an electronic literature search using the following database: PubMed, Medline, Scopus and Google scholar. These databases were searched using the keywords COVID-19 and pharmacological therapy.

Results: At present, there are no well randomized controlled studies which can give evidence for most of the therapy used for COVID-19. Several medications are in trials for COVID-19, among them: 1/ chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine;  2/anti-virals oseltamivir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and other protease inhibitors; 3/antibiotics macrolide (Azithromycin); 4/cytokine therapy interferon; 5/ humanized monoclonal antibody tocilizumab; 6/adjunct therapies vitamins C, D, and herbal medicine; 7/ COVID-19 convalescent plasma; 8/systemic steroids; 9/expected COVID-19 vaccine. We have also included some of the herbal medicines that are commonly and widely used in the Middle East, Asia as well in Sudan, (black seeds, honey and Acacia Nilotica). It is worth mentioning that these herbal medicines have shown benefits in treating other diseases, but the evidence of their benefit in COVID-19 still needs to be established.

Conclusion: Currently there is no pharmacological therapy for the COVID-19. More research and randomized clinical trials are needed to find effective therapy or vaccine against COVID-19.


COVID-19, Pharmacotherapy, herbal medicine, Sudan

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