Comparative Study on the Policy and Implementation of Non-Formal Education in Indonesia and Thailand


Indonesia and Thailand share similar characteristics in terms of their educational systems, and non-formal education has been developed in both countries. This research aimed to identify how the Indonesian National Qualification System policy has been implemented. The strengths and weaknesses of the two countries in their perception and adoption of non-formal and informal education programs were also examined. The transformation of non-formal and informal education into an inseparable part within the National Education System on the macro setting and the macro area was discussed. Lastly, the policies and implementation of non-formal and informal education in both countries were mapped and compared. This research applied a phenomenography qualitative approach. According to the results, Indonesia and Thailand have different terms related to non-formal education: Thailand uses the term Adult Learning and Education (ALE), which involves adult education, equality, community and the elderly. ALE in Thailand is broader because it covers several fields that are not directly within the Ministry of Education but are used as a non-formal education template for the community.

Keywords: non-formal education, implementation, Thailand, Indonesia

[1] Depdiknas. (2003). Undang-undang RI No.20 tahun 2003 tentang sistem pendidikan nasional.

[2] Smith. (2008). What is non-formal education? The encyclopaedia of informal education.

[3] Suryono, Y. (2008). Pengembangan sumber daya manusia pedenkatan strategis dalam pendidikan. Gama Media.

[4] Yuko, A. (2009). Social Education/Adult Education in Japan. JOGMCON86.

[5] Santoso, R. A. (1956). Pendidikan masjarakat: Uraian umum tentang pengertian dan masalahnja, serta tindjauan chusus sekitar timbul dan perkembangannja di Indonesia.

[6] Coombs, M., Ahmed, P. H. (1985). Memerangi kemisikinan di peaesaan melalui pendidikan non formal. CV. Rajawali.

[7] Sudjana. (2001). Metode & teknik pembelajaran partisipatif. Falah Production.

[8] Oktay, F. (2003). Yayg