Infographics As a Tool for Improving Effectiveness of Education
This paper defines the criteria of effective infographics for education. Visualizing information, including that with the help of infographics, is one of the mechanisms to optimize the learning process both in traditional and online format. In the first part of the paper, the author gives a theoretical definition of infographics as a contracted multi-level polysemantic thing. The methodological basis for discussion is provided by the cognitive approach in psyhology and philosophy (R. Arnheim, R. Solso, Y. Valkman) and visual studies (I. Itten, B. Latour, D. Roem, H. Schiffman). Deriving the properties of effective infographics, the author seeks to harmonize empirical data and the results of theoretical studies. The infographic aspects formulated by E.Tafti, Priego, and F. Verbitsky are compared with the results of a survey by L. Harrison on the aesthetic properties of effective infographics. Features of infographics such as scalability, structure-based, focusing on the key points, visual simplicity, and emphasis on the relationship between elements, are by author defined. The difference between infographics and other graphical products is demonstrated. For education it is particularly important that the logic of a structure or image ensures the contraction of information. In turn, the contracted information looks compact and concise. ”Real” infographics have a visual clarity, presence of composition, colour, and image-bearing reference points. Systematic manner enhances the process of developing additional meanings. Aesthetics of the designer‘s infographics represent the reverse side of expediency and logic of a project decision. Th3e article concludes with a discussion of the need to use a cognitive approach to infographics by designers who create effective educational products.
Keywords: design, graphic design, infographics, definition of infographics, infographics for the on-line course, participatory design, survey
 Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (2011). The Company is the Creator of Knowledge. Origin and Development of Innovations in Japanese Firms. London: M., Olimp-Business.
 Gudova, M. Y., Guzikova, M. O. and Rubtsova, Y. V. (2018). Polilingval’noe i polikul’turnoe obrazovanie v universitete: kriticheskij diskurs gramotnosti. Izvestiya Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta, Ser. 3, Obshchestvennye nauki, vol. 13, issue 4 (182), pp. 221-228.
 Latour, B. (1986). Visualization and Cognition: Drawing Things Together. Knowledge and Society: Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present, issue 6, pp. 1-40.
 Roam, D. (2008). The Back of The Napkin: Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with Pictures. New York: Portfolio.
 Itten, J. (2007). Kunst der Farbe - Subjektives Erleben und objektives Erkennen als Wege zur Kunst. Ravensburg: Verlag Maier.
 Raushenbakh, B. V. (2002). Geometriya kartiny i zritel’noe vospriyatie, SPb.: Azbuka-klassika.
 Solso, R. L. (2004). Cognitive Psychology. Delhi: Pearson Education.
 Schiffman, H. R. (2003). Oshchushchenie i vospriyatie. SPb.: Piter.
 Norman, D. A. (2013). Design of Everyday Things. New York: MIT Press.
 Jones, J. C. (1992). Design Methods: Seeds of Human Futures. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
 Smiciklas, M. (2012). The Power of Infographics: Using Pictures to Communicate and Connect with Your Audience. Indianapolis: Que Publishing.
 Valkman, Y. (1994). Definition of Cognitive Graphics and its Methods. International Journal on Information Theories & Applications, vol. 2, pp. 30-36.
 Solovyeva, T. V. (2012). Infographics in Media and Academic Texts. Bulletin of Novgorod State University, vol. 57, pp. 76-79.
 Tufte, E. R. (1990). Envisioning Information. Cheshire: Graphics Press.
 Verbitskiy, A. A. (1991). Aktivnoe obuchenie v vysshej shkole: kontekstnyj podhod. M.: Vysshaya shkola.
 Priego, L. N. (2012). Infographics: The New Way to Communicate with Graphic Descripcion. (Master of Fine Arts in Illustration, Illustration Department, Savannah, GA, 2012).
 Bloq Staff. (2014, March). Retrieved July 30, 2018 from www.creativebloq.com/design/10-steps- creating-perfect-infographic-3145672.
 Harrison, L., Reinecke, K. and Chang, R. (2015). Infographic aesthetics: Designing for the first impression. Presented at the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM – Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, United States, pp. 1187-1190.
 Bodrov, V. N. and Magalashvili, V. V. (2008). Orientirovannaya na celi vizualizaciya znaniya. Obrazovatel’nye tekhnologii i obshchestvo, Kazan‘, vol. 11, issue 1, pp. 420-433.
 Arnheim, R. (2004). Visual Thinking. Berkley: University of California Press.