Gender Sensitivity among Political Parties in Indonesia and India


In Indonesia and India the participation of women in politics is influenced by their traditional social roles. This implies that gender ideology, cultural patterns, and previously determined conceptions of suitable social roles dictate the roles of men and women. Although there is a quota system for ensuring that the representation of women in democratic representation reaches the ‘critical minimum of 30%, it is a sad fact that gender sensitivity towards women as a political class is still severely lacking among the political parties both in Indonesia and in India. This is caused by the patriarchal gender bias against women that is inherent in political parties itself and also due to the lack of political education in gender sensitivity for both men and women. In Indonesia and India, the gender sensitivity of secular political parties is almost same but for the Muslim political parties, Indonesia has better condition than in India.

Keywords: gender sensitivity, political parties, India, Indonesia

[1] Sahu, D. T. K. and Yadav, K. (2018). Women’s education and political participation. International Journal of Advanced Education and Research. Vol. 3, Issue 6, 65-71. DOI: 2018.v3.i6.15

[2] Graves, D. R. (1977). Book Reviews: Elections and Political Development: The South Asian Experience. By NORMAN D. PALMER. (Durham: Duke University Press, 1975. Pp. 340. $17.50.). Western Political Quarterly, 30(3), 444–445.

[3] Schonfeld, W. (1975). The Meaning of Democratic Participation. World Politics, 28(1), 134-158. doi:10.2307/2010033

[4] Verba, S., & Nie, N. H. (1972). Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality. New York: Harper & Row.

[5] Milbrath, L. W., & Goel, M. L. (1977). Political participation: How and why do people get involved in politics?. Chicago: Rand McNally College Pub. Co.

[6] Leiserson, A. (1959). Political Life: Why People Get Involved in Politics. The Journal of Politics, 21(4), 706-708. DOI:

[7] Fakhrudin, & Shah, Mussawar & Ullah, Zakir & Khan, Naushad & Rehan, Rehan & Khan, Younas. (2019). Familial Impediments to Women Political Status In Pukhtun Society. Anthropology. 6 (4). 1-6. DOI:

[8] Lee, M. M. (1976). Why few women hold public office: Democracy and sexual roles. Political Scienc Quarterly, 91(2), 297-314. DOI:

[9] Tedin, K. L., Brady, D. W., & Vedlitz, A. (1977). sex Differences in Political Attitudes and Behavior: the Case for situational Factors. The Journal of Politics, 39(2), 448-456. DOI:

[10] Abels, G. (2007). Citizen involvement in public policy-making: Does it improve democratic legitimacy and accountability? The case of pTA. Interdisciplinary information sciences, 13(1), 103-116. DOI: https: //

[11] Badan Pusat Statistik RI. (2016). Statistik Politik. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik

[12] Election Commission of India. ( 2014 ). Election Results - Full Statistical Reports: STATISTICAL REPORTS OF GENERAL ELECTION TO LOKSABHA, Retrieved September 20, 2019 From: https: // Published on August 10, 2018

[13] Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. and Saldana, J. (2013). Qualitative Data Analysis (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

[14] Shvebova, N. (2002). Kendala-kendala terhadap Partisipasi Perempuan dalam Parlemen, dalam Perempuan dalam Parlemen; Bukan Sekedar Jumlah, Indonesia Version. Stromsborg Swedia: Publication Office International IDEA.