Women in the Eye of Pesantren


Pesantren is a religion-based boarding school chain that is widespread in Indonesia. Pesantren are often negatively stigmatized by a small number of people owing to the perception of the schools radicalizing religious values and demanding the obedience of women. In contrast, this study aims to analyze the way in which Pesantren education plays a major role facilitating the contribution of women in three domains, namely domestic, public, and social. Analysis of women’s self-conception and the role of women in these three domains was conducted using a qualitative approach with a phenomenological design and interview techniques, together with observations on female students in one Pesantren in Central Java and East Java and two religious groups in the West Java region. The results revealed that Pesantren education for women had an impact on the social recognition of women.

Keywords: Islamic Boarding Schools, Pesantren, Social recognition, Three domains of women, and Women.

[1] Abidin, Z. (2017). Teror Atas Nama Jihad: Pandangan dari Orang- orang Pesantren. Fenomena, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 39–60.

[2] Asror, A. (2014). Dakwah Transformatif Lembaga Pesantren dalam Menghadapi Tantangan Kontemporer. Jurnal Dakwah, vol. 15, issue 2, pp. 289– 312.

[3] Bell, J. (1992). Doing Your Research Project. Philadelphia: Open University Project.

[4] Bogdan, R. C. and Biklen, S. K. (1982). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Bacon: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

[5] Brayboy, B. M. and Deyhle, D. (2000). Insider-Outsider: Researchers in American Indian Communities. Theory Into Practice, vol. 39, issue 3, pp. 163–169.

[6] Cooley, C.H. (1956). Sociological Theory and Social Researches. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

[7] Creswell, J. W. (2012). Research Design: Pendekatan Kualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan Mixed (Edisi Ketiga). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

[8] Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Los Angeles: SAGE Publication Ltd.

[9] Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: SAGE Publication Ltd.

[10] Hakam, K. A., et al. (2017). Young Generation and Future Leadership: Learn from now for Better Tomorrow. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, vol. 14, issue 9, pp. 229– 232.

[11] Hernawati, A., and Nurbayani, S. (2018). The Importance of Critical Thinking to Face Global Challenges in The Era of Industry 4.0 Through Social Studies. Presented at 3rd International Seminar on Social Studies and History Education (ISSSHE Bandung, Indonesia), pp. 155–166.

[12] Islamiah, R. and Nurbayani, S. (2018). The Implementation of Multicultural Education to Social Studies Learning through Art and Culture on 21st Century Skills. The 3rd International Seminar on Social Studies and History Education (ISSSHE, Bandung, Indonesia), pp. 351–360.

[13] Ismail, N. (2003). Perempuan dalam Pasungan. Yogyakarta: Lkis.

[14] Mahmudah, N. (2015). Memotret Wajah Pendidikan Seksualitas di Pesantren. Quality, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 133–157.

[15] Malihah, E., et al. (2016). Is Woman’s Empowerment Necessary? Presented at 7th UPSI-UPI International Conference, Perak, Malaysia.

[16] Malihah, E. and Nurbayani, S. (2015). Teaching Conflict Resolution through General Education at University: Preparing Students to Prevent or Resolve Conflicts in a Pluralistic Society. Asian Social Science, vol. 11, issue 12, pp. 353–361.

[17] Mannan, A. (2017). Pembinaan Moral dalam Membentuk Karakter Remaja. Jurnal Aqidah, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 59–72.

[18] Mama, A. (2002). Beyond the Masks: Race, Gender and Subjectivity. Routlegde: United States.

[19] Moleong, L. J. (2012). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Edisi Revisi. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

[20] Muafiah, E. (2013). Pendidikan Perempuan di Pondok Pesantren. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, vol. 7, pp. 89–110.

[21] Muhannif, A. (2002). Perempuan dalam Literatur Klasik. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka.

[22] Naples, N. A. (1996). A Feminist Revisiting of the Insider/Outsider Debate: The “Outsider Phenomenon” in Rural Iowa. Qualitative Sociology, vol. 19, issue 1, pp. 83–106.

[23] Nindito, S. (2005). Fenomenologi Alfred Schutz: Studi tentang Konstruksi Makna dan Realitas dalam Ilmu Sosial. Ilmu Komunikasi, vol. 2, issue 1, pp. 79–94.

[24] Nurbayani, S., et al. (2019). Women’s Leadership as Top Management in Educational Institution: Society Construction and Cultural Dilemma. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), pp. 311–314.

[25] Nuroniyah, W. (2019). Feminisme dalam Pesantren: Narasi Pemberdayaan Perempuan di Pondok Pesantren Buntet Cirebon. Equalita, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 142–164.

[26] Pohl, F. (2012). Islamic Education and Civil Society: Reflections on the Pesantren Tradition in Contemporary Indonesia. Comparative and International Education Society, vol. 50, issue 3, pp. 389– 409.

[27] Rodgers, B. L. and Cowles, K. V. (1993). The Qualitative Research Audit Trail: A Complex Collection of Documentation. Research in Nursing & Health, vol. 16, issue 3, pp. 219–226.

[28] Nurbayani, S., Anggun, I. and P. W. (2019). Female Economic Movement of Fishery Labor Family in Coastal Region Female Economic Movement of Fishery Labor Family in Coastal Region. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, pp. 1–7.

[29] Srimulyani, E. (2007). Muslim Women and Education in Indonesia: The Pondok Pesantren Experience Muslim Women and Education in Indonesia: The Pondok Pesantren Experience. Asian Pacific Journal of Education, vol. 27, pp. 85–99.

[30] Sutarni, N., Wulandari, P. and Asyahidda, F. N. (2017). Local Wisdom as Income Generator Increasing Mutual Life and Lifeskill through Local Indigenous. In 2nd International Conference of Sociology Education. (Malihah, A. T., Nurbayani, E. and Aryanti, T. S. Eds.). Bandung: Scitepress.

[31] Syarif, J. (2009). Bangsa-Bangsa Jamal Syarif. Banjarmasin: Fakultas Tarbiyah IAIN Antasari.

[32] Towaf, S. (2008). Peran Perempuan, Wawasan Gender dan Implikasinya terhadap Pendidikan di Pesantren. Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, Jilid, vol. 15, issue 3, pp. 140–149.

[33] Warliah, W. (2017). Pendidikan Berbasis Gender Awareness: Strategi Meminimalisir Bias Gender di Pondok Pesantren. Jurnal Islam Nusantara, vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 118–130.

[34] Wilodati, W., Komariah, S. and Wulandari, P. (2019). From Women. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, pp. 79–82.

[35] Wulandari, H. and Nurbayani, K. (2016). The Status and Role of Women in the Community of Suku Dayak Hindu Budha Bumi Segandhu Indramayu. In UPI ICSE 2015. Bandung: Atlantis Press.

[36] Wulandari, P. (2017) REKONSTRUKSI PERAN PEREMPUAN DALAM KELUARGA BURUH MIGRAN PEREMPUAN (BMP): Studi Fenomenologi pada Keluarga BMP di Kabupaten Indramayu. Master thesis, Bandung: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

[37] Zakiyah, N. (2002). Keterkaitan Pendidikan Formal Perempuan dan Dunia Pembangunan, Jurnal Perempuan, Vol. 23 No.1, Jakarta: Yayasan Jurnal Perempuan.

[38] Zein, L. F & Setiawan, A. (2019). Melihat Tempat Perempuan dalam kitab Kuning. Retrieved from: https: //www.researchgate.net/publication/331880651_Melihat_Tempat_Perempuan_dalam_kitab_Kuning/ citations, DOI: 10.31227/osf.io/c96up, accessed on 12 October 2019.

[39] Kuswarno, E. (2009). Metode Penelitian Komunikasi: Fenomenologi: Konsepsi, Pedoman, dan Contoh Penelitiannya. Bandung: Widya Padjadjaran.