"Brain-mimicking Machine" in Digital Utopias: From Memex to Hypertext and Beyond
Computer-brain analogies are ubiquitous in contemporary culture. They also have a long and relevant history. Throughout the history of computer development, computers as “brain-mimicking machines” were used as blueprints for computer design, as inspiration for new visionary ideas, as tools of liberation and as ideological construct obscuring actually existing power relations. Today, with the growing disenchantment with the results of digital transformation, we are forced to admit that these analogies often underpin relationships between human and technology that are disempowering and increasingly problematic.
Keywords: human-machine symbiosis, augmented reality, memex, hypertext, ideology, Web 2.0, platform capitalism
 Barnet B. Memory machines: The evolution of hypertext. London, Anthem Press, 2013.
 Rabinovich E.I. Red Golem: Criticism of Industrial Civilization in Soviet Culture and Mysticism During the Civil War. In: Facets of Culture in the Age of Social Transition, KnowlegeE Publishing, 2018, Iss. 3. Doi: 10.18502/keg.v3i8.3608
 Schüll N.D. Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.
 Wu T. The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside our Heads. New York, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2016.
 Alter A. Irresistible: The Rise of Addictive Technology and the Business of Keeping Us Hooked. New York, Penguin Press, 2017.
 Bush V. As We May Think. In: The Atlantic, 1945, Iss. 07.
 Lanier J. You Are Not a Gadget. Vintage, 2010.
 Turner F. From Counterculture to Cyberculture. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2006.