Me vs Other Girls: Internalized Misogyny and Rape Myth Acceptance Among Women


This study aimed to determine how internalized misogyny influences rape myth acceptance among women. This investigation employed a quantitative correlational design. 396 college women between the ages of 18 and 25 who were studying at universities in Malang City were recruited using incidental sampling. This study employed two instruments to measure internalized misogyny and rape myth acceptance, Piggott’s Internalized Misogyny Scale (2004) and McMahon & Farmer’s Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (2011). A multiple linear regression test was used to test the hypothesis. The results of the data analysis demonstrated that internalized misogyny had a significant effect on women’s acceptance of the rape myth (F = 2209.310; p = 0.000 < 0.05; R2 = 0.944). The three dimensions of internalized misogyny, namely the devaluation of women (t = 47.731; p < 0.01), distrust of women (t = 51.762; p < 0.01), and gender bias in favor of men (t = 48.696; p < 0.01) partially influenced rape myth acceptance against women.

Keywords: Internalized misogyny, Rape myth acceptance, Women

[1] Utami PN. Optimalisasi Pemenuhan Hak Korban Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan Melalui Pusat Pelayanan Terpadu. Jurnal HAM. 2016;7(1):55.

[2] World Health Organization. Violence against women. 2021.


[4] Farid MR. Kekerasan terhadap Perempuan dalam Ketimpangan Relasi Kuasa: Studi Kasus di Rifka Annisa Women’s Crisis Center. Sawwa: Jurnal Studi Gender. 2019;14(2):175–90.

[5] SIMFONI-PPA. (2023). Kasus Kekerasan di Indonesia.

[6] Wulandari EP, Krisnani H. Kecenderungan Menyalahkan Korban (Victim-Blaming) dalam Kekerasan Seksual Terhadap Perempuan Sebagai Dampak Kekeliruan Atribusi. Share : Social Work Journal. 2021;10(2):187.

[7] Komnas Perempuan. Bayang-bayang stagnansi: Daya pencegahan dan penanganan berbanding peningkatan jumlah, ragam, dan kompleksitas kekerasan berbasis gender terhadap perempuan (CATAHU: Catatan Tahunan Tentang Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan). Komisi Nasional Perempuan. 2022.

[8] Lonsway KA, Fitzgerald LF. Rape Myths: in Review. Psychol Women Q. 1994;18(2):133– 64.

[9] McMahon S, Farmer GL. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths. Soc Work Res. 2011;35(2):71–81.

[10] Piggot M. Double jeopardy: Lesbians and the legacy of multiple stigmatised identities [Swinburne University of Technology]. 8ac639834d5a/1/

[11] Sarah MS. Perempuan dalam Pusaran Internalized Misogyny.

[12] Daleo D, Riggs M. Internalized Misogyny: Conceptualizations and Implications. Los Angeles: California School of Professional Psychology; 1996.

[13] Saakvitne KW, Pearlman LA. The impact of internalized misogyny and violence against women on feminine identity. In: Cook EP, editor. Women, relationships, and power: Implications for counseling. American Counseling Association; 1993. pp. 247–74.

[14] Bearman S, Korobov N, Thorne A. The Fabric of Internalized Sexism. Journal of Integrated Social Science. 2009;1(1):10–47.

[15] Velker E, Aiken L. Rape Culture: The Correlation Between Adherence to Traditional Gender Roles, Internalized Misogyny and Rape Myth Acceptance in College Women Ages 18-20 - ProQuest [Master Thesis, Brenau University]. 1?cbl=18750&diss=y&pq-origsite=gscholar&parentSessionId= PaK3zffNjouLo3DIpgkLLkNinYJh8galmlP61q9Hdq8{%}3D

[16] Prina F, Schatz-Stevens JN. Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance: The Impact of Culture, Education, and Religiosity. Psychol Rep. 2020 Jun;123(3):929–51.

[17] Wienclaw RA. Gender Roles & Equality. Salem Press; 2016.

[18] Neculaesei AN. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES. Cross-Cultural Management Journal. 2015;17(1):31–5.

[19] Payne DL, Lonsway KA, Fitzgerald LF. Rape Myth Acceptance: Exploration of Its Structure and Its Measurement Using theIllinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. J Res Pers. 1999;33(1):27–68.

[20] Burt MR. Cultural myths and supports for rape. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1980 Feb;38(2):217–30.

[21] Anderson KB, Cooper H, Okamura L. Individual Differences and Attitudes Toward Rape: A Meta-Analytic Review. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 1997;23(3):295–315.

[22] Knapp E. What #NoWomanEver Wants To Hear: The Social Construction of Corrective Facework After Street Harassment

[University of Central Florida, University of Central Florida].

[23] Szymanski DM, Gupta A, Carr ER, Stewart D. Internalized Misogyny as a Moderator of the Link between Sexist Events and Women’s Psychological Distress. Sex Roles. 2009;61(1–2):101–9.

[24] Nabilah A. Pengaruh internalized misogyny terhadap psychological distress pada mahasiswi program S1 Fakultas Psikologi UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang [Undergraduate thesis, UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang]. 2022. http://etheses.uinmalang.

[25] Einhorn S. From a woman’s point of view. How internalized misogyny affects relationships between women. Group Anal. 2021;54(4):481–98.

[26] Grubb A, Turner E. Attribution of blame in rape cases: A review of the impact of rape myth acceptance, gender role conformity and substance use on victim blaming. Aggress Violent Behav. 2012;17(5):443–52.

[27] Bonilla-Algovia E, Rivas-Rivero E. Violencia íntima de pareja contra las mujeres: un estudio de las creencias en docentes en formación de España y América Latina. Int J Psychol Res (Medellin). 2021;14(2):18–29.

[28] Duli N. Metodologi Penelitian Kuantitatif: Beberapa Konsep Dasar Untuk Penulisan Skripsi & Analisis Data Dengan SPSS. Deepublish; 2019.

[29] Santoso I, Madiistriyatno H. Metodologi Penelitian Kuantitatif. Indigo Media; 2021.

[30] Azwar S. Penyusunan skala psikologi. Pustaka Pelajar.

[31] Iconis R. Rape Myth Acceptance In College Students: A Literature Review [CIER]. Contemp Issues Educ Res. 2011;1(2):47.

[32] Rizanty MA. Provinsi dengan Kasus Perkosaan Tertinggi Nasional, Ini Sebarannya. Katadata.Co.Id. 2022. tertinggi-nasional-ini-sebarannya

[33] Santrock J. Life-Span Development. McGraw-Hill Education; 2010.

[34] Azwar S. Metode penelitian. Pustaka Pelajar. DetailOpac.aspx?id=337864

[35] Bungin B. Metodologi penelitian kuantitatif: Komunikasi, ekonomi, dan kebijakan publik serta ilmu-ilmu sosial lainnya / H. M. Burhan Bungin | OPAC Perpustakaan Nasional RI. 1st ed. Kencana; 2010.,

[36] Lwanga SK, Lemeshow S. Sample size determination in health studies: A practical manual. World Health Organization; 1991.

[37] Thelan AR, Meadows EA. The Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Subtle Version: Using an Adapted Measure to Understand the Declining Rates of Rape Myth Acceptance. J Interpers Violence. 2022 Oct;37(19-20):NP17807–33.

[38] Means, K. K., ”“Not Like Other Girls”: Implicit and Explicit Dimensions of Internalized Sexism andBehavioral Outcomes” (2021). WWU Graduate School Collection. 1020.

[39] Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine. 2000 Dec;25(24):3186–91.

[40] Winarsunu T. Statistik dalam penelitian psikologi dan pendidikan. 1st ed. Penerbitan Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang; 2002.

[41] Ghozalie I. Aplikasi Analisis Multivariete dengan Program IBM SPSS 23 (8th ed.). Univ. Diponegoro Press; 2016. digilib.

[42] Widana IW, Muliani NP. Uji persyaratan analisis. Universitas PGRI Mahadewa Indonesia; 2022.

[43] Savigny H. Sexism and Misogyny. In: Ross K, Bachmann I, Cardo V, Moorti S, Scarcelli M, editors. The International Encyclopedia of Gender, Media, and Communication. 1st ed. Wiley; 2020. pp. 1–7.

[44] Akarsu AS, Sakalli N. The associations among self-silencing, ambivalent sexism, and perceived devaluation of women in Turkey. Curr Psychol. 2023;42(13):10693–705.

[45] Rennie E. ‘What a lying slut’: The (re)production of rape myths in online misogyny towards women disclosing their experiences of rape through the #MeToo movement. J Gend Based Violence. 2023;7(2):204–19.

[46] Harding K. Asking for It: The Alarming Rise of Rape Culture—and What We Can Do about It. Da Capo Lifelong Books; 2015.

[47] Angelone DJ, Cantor N, Marcantonio T, Joppa M. Does Sexism Mediate the Gender and Rape Myth Acceptance Relationship? Violence Against Women. 2021 May;27(6- 7):748–65.

[48] Jozkowski KN, Marcantonio TL, Hunt ME. College Students’ Sexual Consent Communication And Perceptions of Sexual Double Standards: A Qualitative Investigation. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2017 Dec;49(4):237–44.

[49] Canan SN, Jozkowski KN, Crawford BL. Sexual Assault Supportive Attitudes: Rape Myth Acceptance and Token Resistance in Greek and Non-Greek College Students From Two University Samples in the United States. J Interpers Violence. 2018 Nov;33(22):3502–30.