Reeducation of Terrorist Prisoners to the Acceptance of Unitary State Republic of Indonesia Through Psychological and Religious Intervention


Re-education is a follow-up intervention that aims to provide a re-understanding for terrorist prisoners. This research consists of two interventions that are psychological and religious for terrorist prisoners in Correctional Institutions in Lampung Province. This study aims to determine whether there is an increase in terrorist acceptance in the Republic of Indonesia through psychological and religious interventions. This research was conducted from 2018 to 2021 involving psychologists, doctors, and masters of the Islamic religion as a facilitator. The results of this study were categorized based on two major themes that are: 1) the terrorist’s knowledge about religious intervention; 2) the increasing knowledge and acceptance toward NKRI through psychological intervention. The results of this study found that the provision of re-education through psychological and religious interventions was able to increase the understanding of the acceptance of terrorists toward the Republic of Indonesia and could improve the perception block that each terrorist had.

Keywords: re-education, psychotherapy intervention, religious intervention, terrorist

[1] Anggranti W. Pembinaan Keagamaandalam Peningkatan Kesadaran Beragama Warga Binaan Lapas Perempuandan Anak Kelas II Tenggarong. Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat. 2022;1(1):14–22.

[2] Arie WK, Michele JG, Rohan G. Aspects of deradicalization. In Terrorist rehabilitation and counter-radicalisation: New approaches to counter-terrorism (Vol. 9780203830482, pp. 135–145). Routledge. 2011.

[3] Arifani D, Syafiq M. Menjadi Tahanan Pendamping Narapidana : Motivasi dan Dampaknya terhadap Perubahan Diri. Character: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi. 2019;6(3):1–11.

[4] Atherton E. 6 strategies for preventing radicalization in US jails and prisons. Police1. 2017. strategies-for-preventing-radicalization-in-us-jails-and-prisons-lqMNlyz1n2TspKGc/

[5] Beaudry G, Yu R, Perry AE, Fazel S. Effectiveness of psychological interventions in prison to reduce recidivism: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet Psychiat. 2021;8(9):759–773. 0366(21)00170-X

[6] Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3(2):77–101.

[7] Brines M, Patel NSA, Villa P, Brines C, Mennini T, De Paola M, et al. Nonerythropoietic, tissue-protective peptides derived from the tertiary structure of erythropoietin. Proc Natl Acad Sci.2008;105(31):10925–10930.

[8] Dammer HR, Albanese JS. Comparative criminal justice systems. Cengage Learning. 2013.

[9] Ellis A. Rational psychotherapy. J Gen Psychol. 1958;59(1):35–49.

[10] Hachem H, Nikkola E, Zaidan A. The case of educational gerontology in Lebanon: A harbinger of empowerment, emancipation and social change? Int J Lifelong Educ. 2017;36(6):713–729.

[11] Hasan Wahid S, Kususiyanah A. Menguji Efektivitas Program Moderasi Beragama di Perguruan Tinggi (Testing the effectiveness of the religious moderation program in universities). The First International Conference on Cultures & Languages (ICCL). 2022;1(1):75–91.

[12] Hosser D, Windzio M, Greve W. Guilt and shame as predictors of recidivism: A longitudinal study with young prisoners. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 2008;35(1):138–152.

[13] Indrawan J, Aji MP. The effectiveness of national agency for combating terrorism’s deradicalization program toward terror convicts in Indonesia. Jurnal Pertahanan & Bela Negara. 2019;9(2):1.

[14] Jones JW. Why does religion turn violent? A psychoanalytic exploration of religious terrorism. Psychoanal Rev. 2006;93(2):167–190.

[15] Khamdan M. Pengembangan Nasionalisme Keagamaan Sebagai Strategi Penanganan Potensi Radikalisme Islam Transnasional. Addin. 2016;10(1):207.

[16] Lubis AF, Bahri S, Ayuhan A. Student religious moderation contest at Indonesian Islamic Universities. AL-ISHLAH: Jurnal Pendidikan. 2022;14(3):3339–3348.

[17] Maghfirah WY, Mulyani, Fadhila M. Guilty Feeling Narapidana Kategori Residivis Studi Kasus di Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Kelas II A Banjarmasin. Jurnal Al Husna. 2021;2(3):259–280.

[18] Mahmudah S. The rise of sharia issues in the contexts of power relation in contemporary Indonesia. Proceedings of the 1st Raden Intan International Conference on Muslim Societies and Social Sciences (RIICMuSSS 2019). 2020;492:44–49.

[19] Maton KI, Dodgen D, Mariano MR, Larson DB. Religion as a meaning system: Policy implications for the new millennium. J Soc Issues. 2005;61(4):847–867.

[20] McBride MK, Carroll M, Mellea J, Hughes D, Savoia E. Evaluating terrorist and extremist reintegration programming: A systematic literature review. J Deradicalization. 2022;32:35–75.

[21] Milton-Edwards B. Islam and violence in the Modern Era. In Islam and Violence in the Modern Era. Springer; 2006.

[22] Moghaddam FM. The new global insecurity: How terrorism, environmental collapse, economic inequalities, and resource shortages are changing our world. ABC-CLIO. 2010.

[23] Nasution S, Sukabdi Z, Priyanto S. Credible voice of Sofyan Tsauri as the deradicalization strategy for former terrorism prisoners. Technium Soc Sci J. 2021;25:675. hein.journals/techssj25§ion=55{%}0A socialsciences/article/download/4970/1778

[24] Paikah N. Kedudukan dan Fungsi Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme (BNPT) Dalam Pemberantasan Terorisme di Indonesia. Al-Adalah: Jurnal Hukum Dan Politik Islam. 2019;4(1):1–20.

[25] Rangel Torrijo H, De Maeyer M. Education in prison: A basic right and an essential tool. In International review of education (Vol. 65, Issue 5, pp. 671–685). Springer; 2019.

[26] Rushchenko J. Terrorist recruitment and prison radicalization: Assessing the UK experiment of ‘separation centres.’ Euro J Criminol. 2019;16(3):295–314.

[27] Saputra SB, Amsori. Upaya preventyif dan represif terhadap tindak pidana terorisme di indonesia. Jurnal Ilmiah Publika. 2022;10(2):249–261.

[28] Silke BA. Disengagement or deradicalization : A look at prison programs for jailed terrorists. “ While a desire to try to rehabilitate should be applauded , the manner programs are developing in the West raises serious concerns.” Combating Terorisme Center. 2011;4(1):2007–2010. a-look-at-prison-programs-for-jailed-terrorists/

[29] Soto J. Deradicalization programs: A counterterrorism tool. American Security Project. 2020. counterterrorism-tool/

[30] Suarda IGW. A literature review on Indonesia’s deradicalization program for terrorist prisoners. Mimbar Hukum. 2016;28(3):526.

[31] Tripodi SJ, Kim JS, Bender K. Is employment associated with reduced recidivism?: The complex relationship between employment and crime. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2010;54(5):706–720.

[32] Turner MJ. Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), irrational and rational beliefs, and the mental health of athletes. Front Psychol. 2016;7(SEP):1423.

[33] Wellman Jr JK, Tokuno K, Inevitable I. R. V. Religion and violence in the urban context Elfriede Wedam and Ryan SC Wongi Loyola University Chicago. Religion. 2004;43(3):291–296.