Facing the Global Islamic Leadership Crisis: An Islamic Process and Modes Toward a Unified Governance of the Muslim Ummah


Data and facts show that strong political influence often influences the election of leaders in several Muslim countries. This can lead to a lack of democracy and transparency in the political system and increase the risk of corruption and authoritarianism. According to a survey conducted by the Pew Research Center in 2016, most Muslim communities in several countries, such as Egypt, Pakistan and Tunisia, were dissatisfied with the quality of leadership. Facing the global crisis and democracy’s future and its problems, challenges, and resolutions is broad enough to be presented and discussed thoroughly within the timeframe. It is essential to focus on a specific topic that might encompass this theme. There is an inquiry if there is a unified governance that the Muslim Ummah must observe and may be followed by the global community. How to solve the global crisis and problems of democracy in Islamic leadership? The research method used was qualitative analysis. In view of the above presentation and discussion, it is because of this conclusion that the Islamic process and modes, if properly observed, strongly influence to have unified governance of the Muslim Ummah. After the divine mode of having a leader as it was applied to the Prophets and Messengers of Allah, such is left to the Muslim community following the above-mentioned modes. Based on the above presentation and the need to realize the unified governance of the Muslim Ummah, it is hereby recommended the need to reexamine, reinvestigate, and to study in deep the educational system and curricular offerings of state colleges and universities to include the Islamic process and modes toward a unified governance of the Muslim Ummah seriously as a core subject following the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. and the four rightly guided Caliphs.

Keywords: Islamic Leadership, Islamic Modes, The Muslim Ummah

[1] OCHA. Situation report: Iraq IDP crisis. Vol. 5. 2014. p. 1–5.

[2] Rodgers L, Gritten D, Asare P, Offer J. Syria: The story of the conflict - BBC News. Bbc. 2015.

[3] 2021 Corruption Perceptions Index - Explore New… - Transparency.org.

[4] Oplatka I, Arar K. The research on educational leadership and management in the Arab world since the 1990s: A systematic review. Rev Educ. 2017 Oct;5(3):267–307.

[5] Democracy - Oxford University Press.

[6] Tangian A. Analytical Theory of Democracy. 2020;

[7] Creswell JW. Research Design : Qualitative, Quantitative, And Mixed Methods Approaches. SAGE Publications; 2014.

[8] Patton MQ. Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods: Integrating Theory and Practice. SAGE Publications; 2014.

[9] Egel E, Fry LW. Spiritual Leadership as a Model for Islamic Leadership. http://dx.doi.org/101080/1099992220161200411. 2016 Jan;19(1):77–95.

[10] Duran B, Yilmaz and N. Islam, Models and the Middle East: The New Balance of Power following the Arab Spring. 2013;XVIII(4):195–213.

[11] Mohammed Ayoob DNL. The Many Faces of Political Islam: Religion and Politics in Muslim Societies. 2020.

[12] Quran. 2020.

[13] Calimba ML. Muslim intellectuals’ contribution to Islamic resurgence in the Philippines: a historical survey. Doctoral dissertation, University of the Philippines; 1990.

[14] Campo JE. Encyclopedia of Islam,. Infobase Publishing,; 2000.

[15] Ahmed N. Islam in Global History: From the Death of Prophet Muhammad to the First World. American Institute of Islamic History and Culture; 2000.

[16] The Islamic State: The Caliphate.

[17] Ochsenwald W, Fisher SN, Fisher SN. The Middle East : A History. McGraw Hill; 2010. 780 p.

[18] Momen M. An Introduction to Shi￿i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi￿ism. Yale University Press; 1985. 12–16 p.

[19] Gleave RM. ￿Alī b. Abī ￿ālib”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas DJS, editor. Brill Reference Online; 2021.

[20] Miskinzoda G. “The significance of the ￿adīth of the position of Aaron for the formulation of the Shī￿ī doctrine of authority”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies,; 2015.

[21] Abbas H. The Prophet’s Heir: The life of Ali ibn Abi Talib. Yale University Press,;

[22] Rogerson B. The heirs of the prophet Muhammad: And the roots of the Sunni-Shia schism. Abacus. London; 2006. 40, 62. p.

[23] Madelun W. The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. 1997.

[24] Sardar Z. Islamic Futures: The Shape of Ideas to Come. Selangor Darul Salam: Pelandok Publication; 1988.

[25] Sardar Z. The Future of Muslim Civilization. Selangor Darul Salam: Pelandok Publication; 1988.