The Role of Democracy in Reinforcing Sustainable Development and SDGs Achievements: Evidence from 3 Muslim Countries in Southeast Asia
Climate change is considered to be the most serious challenge to global development, with its widespread, unanticipated consequences disproportionately affecting the poorest and most vulnerable. Immediate action to curb climate change and deal with its repercussions is crucial in achieving all the SDGs. Southeast Asia is one region that is particularly sensitive to the effects of climate change. Policymakers began to take an action, as the consequences of environmental issues and climate change became more severe. Key environmental regulations, such as framework laws, safeguard measures, and air and water quality standards, have been implemented throughout the region. Muslim democratic countries differ systematically both in the degree of Islamic political party concentration in the parliament and in the party discipline. Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, and Malaysia have very different political systems, ranging from absolute monarchy, in which the Sultan of Brunei Darussalam rules almost every aspect of society’s life, to democratic deficit in Indonesia, in which the government’s methods or operations fall short for satisfying democratic norms. Although the three Muslim countries share divergences in democracy state, but the countries’ sustainable development policies and overall SDGs score of realization remain similar during the period of 2001-2021.
Keywords: Islam, Democracy, Sustainable Development, SDGs, Southeast Asia.
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