End-Text References Cited in Written Final Project Reports: A Case of English Teacher Candidates


Citation is important in academic writing because it informs the reader about the quality and authority of the information quoted. In-text citations and end-text citations or references are the two types of citations. A reference list provides readers with the information they need to locate and retrieve books cited in a text. End-text references are used to provide this information. Writers can use a variety of citation styles in their writing, such as APA, MLA, Chicago, and others. The goals of this study were to identify the end-text reference forms used in written final project reports and identify the issues using end-text references in written final project reports. The data were collected using an analytic qualitative method, which included the use of a note-taking technique. The research’s data came from a selection of final projects done by English teacher candidates. Identification of end-text reference forms and difficulties with end-text references were used to examine the data. The findings show that (i) the writers primarily use end-text references, as recommended in the department’s final project writing guidelines, and (ii) there are several major issues with the use of end-text references in written reports of selected final projects, including incompleteness, inconsistency in the use of end-text reference styles, and incorrect citation order.

Keywords: end-text reference, final project, teacher candidates

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