Developing Individualized Education Program (IEP) on Early Reading for Special Needs Students in Inclusive Primary Schools in Magetan Regency


This research describes and explains (i) the condition of early reading for special needs students in inclusive primary schools in Magetan regency, Indonesia; (ii) the teachers’ need for an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for early reading; and (iii) the development of IEP in early reading for special needs students. The study is developmental research introduced by Borg dan Gall. The research was planned to be conducted in four steps: exploration, model development, model testing, and dissemination. However, the current study explains the development of IEP at the exploration step. A descriptive qualitative method was used in the exploration step. Data were collected through document study, observation, and interview, and analyzed using the interactive model. The research at the exploration step showed the following results: First, teachers faced many constraints while teaching early reading to special needs students; each special needs student faced a different obstacle which only a few teachers understood and tackled well. In addition, some obstacles also came from parents who are unaware of their children’s needs and cannot contribute to their studies. Second, teachers need IEP in early reading for special needs students to tackle the different obstacles. Based on the research results, a prototype for IEP in early reading for special needs students at inclusive primary schools in Magetan Regency was designed at the development step.

Keywords: Individualized Education Program (IEP), early reading, special need students, inclusive primary school

[1] Hallan PC, Kauffman DP, Pullen JM. Exceptional learners. 11th ed. London, United Kingdom; Pearson Education, Inc.; 2009.

[2] Heward WL. Exceptional children: An introduction to special education. New Jersey: Merril, Prentice Hall; 2003.

[3] Galevska NA, Pesic MI. Assessing children with special educational needs in the inclusive classrooms. Macedonia; Cyril and Methodius University; 2018.

[4] Hornby G. Inclusive special education. New York: Springer; 2014.

[5] Singal N, Muthukrishna N. Education, childhood and disability in countries of the South–Re-positioning the debates. Childhood. 2014;21(3):293-307.

[6] Hornby G. Inclusive special education: Development of a new theory for the education of children with special educational needs and disabilities. British Journal of Special Education. 2015;42(3):234-56.

[7] Chan T, Yuen M. Inclusive education in an international school: A case study from Hong Kong. International Journal of Special Education. 2015;30(3):86-97.

[8] C. Seefeldt and B.A. Wasik, Early Education: Three, Four, and Five Year Olds Go to School. Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall, London, United Kingdom, 2005.

[9] Rovik R. Individualized education program (IEP) mata pelajaran kimia untuk siswa slow learner. INKLUSI Journal of Disability Studies. 2017;4(1):93-118.

[10] Andayani A. Pengembangan model bahan ajar membaca menulis permulaan dengan pendekatan atraktif di sekolah dasar kawasan miskin kota surakarta. Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra. 2010;22(1):47-60.

[11] Magnifico AM, Woodard R, McCarthey S. Teachers as co-authors of student writing: How teachers’ initiating texts influence response and revision in an online space. Computers and Composition. 2019;52:107-31.

[12] Shapiro LR, Carroll JM, Solity JE. Separating the influences of prereading skills on early word and nonword reading. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2013;116(2):278-95.

[13] Mariotti S, Homan AS. Linking reading assessment to instruction an application worktext for elementary classroom teacher. London: Lawrence Erlbam Associates Publishers; 2005.

[14] Clementson T. Natural reading and writing skills English elementary resource book. New York: Oxford University Press; 2010.

[15] E. Daniels, J. Hamby, and R.J. Chen, “Reading Writing Reciprocity: Inquiry in the Classroom.,” Middle School Journal. vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 9–16, 2015.

[16] W.H. Blackwell and Z.S. Rossetti, “The Development of Individualized Education Programs: Where Have We Been and Where Should We Go Now?,” SAGE Open. vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1–15, 2014.

[17] A.T. Nastiti and N. Azizah, “A Review on Individualized Educational Program in Some Countries.,” In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Special and Inclusive Education (ICSIE 2018). pp. 40–46. Atlantis Press, Paris, France (2019).

[18] Smith CD. Cara menangani anak berkebutuhan khusus. Jakarta: Indeks; 2009.

[19] N. Bennett, W.R. Borg, and M.D. Gall, “Educational Research: An Introduction.,” British Journal of Educational Studies. vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 274–274, 1984.

[20] Sukmadinata NS. Metode penelitian Pendidikan. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosda Karya Offset; 2010.

[21] Vusparatih DS. Individual education program kaitannya dengan differentiated assessment: Strategi mengakomodir siswa berkebutuhan khusus di sekolah umum. Humaniora. 2011;2(2):996-1005.

[22] T.-L. Lee, M.-C. Chung, I.-C. Chiu, C.-C. Chiu, and S.-C. Lin, “The Implementation of Individualized Education Program in an inclusive class, Taiwan.,” In: The 18th Asian Conference on MENTAL RETARDATION. pp. 1–12 (2007)

[23] N.H. Ismail and R.A. Majid, “Implementation of Individual Education Program (IEP) in Curriculum of Students with Learning Disabilities.,” In: International Conference on Special Education In South East Asia Region 10th Series 2020. pp. 140–145. Redwhite Press (2020).

[24] Ministry of Education, Canada. Individual education planning for student with special needs. British Colombia: BCSSA; 2009. DOI