Self-directed Learning, Self-efficacy, and Technology Readiness in E-learning Among University Students


Research on e-learning shows that there are moderating factors determining the successful use of e-learning. Learner’s internal factors such as attitudes, self-efficacy, digital literacy, self-directed learning, and technology readiness are factors that influence the use of e-learning and e-learning satisfaction. External factors such as technical support, infrastructure support, and leadership have also been found to affect e-learning satisfaction. The objectives of this quantitative study are twofold. First, it intends to explore how students used e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Second, it examines the interplay between self-directed learning, self-efficacy, and technology readiness among university students. For this quantitative study, a questionnaire was administered to 4,953 university students. Using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis, this study looks at the relationships between self-efficacy, technology readiness, and self-directed learning. The implications of this study on higher education policy on e-learning will also be discussed.

Keywords: self-directed learning, self-efficacy, technology readiness, e-learning

[1] Holley D. Which room is the virtual seminar in please? Education + Training. 2002;44(3):112–21. 283

[2] Al￿Qahtani AA, Higgins SE. Effects of traditional, blended and e￿learning on students’ achievement in higher education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 2013;29(3):220-234.

[3] Bhuasiri W, Xaymoungkhoun O, Zo H, Rho JJ, Ciganek AP. Critical success factors for e-learning in developing countries: A comparative analysis between ICT experts and faculty. Computers & Education. 2012;58(2):843-55.

[4] Cheung R, Vogel D. Predicting user acceptance of collaborative technologies: An extension of the technology acceptance model for e-learning. Computers & Education. 2013;63:160-75.

[5] Paechter M, Maier B, Macher D. Students’ expectations of, and experiences in elearning: Their relation to learning achievements and course satisfaction. Computers & Education. 2010;54(1):222-229. j.compedu.2009.08.005 [6] Hartley D. All aboard the e-learning train. Training & Development. 2000;54(7):37-60.

[7] Liaw SS, Huang HM, Chen GD. Surveying instructor and learner attitudes toward e-learning. Computers & Education. 2007;49(4):1066-80.

[8] Chu RJC, Tsai CC. Self￿directed learning readiness, internet self￿efficacy and preferences towards constructivist internet￿based learning environments among higher￿aged adults. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 2009;25(5):489-501. 00324.x

[9] Morris TH. Self-directed learning: A fundamental competence in a rapidly changing world. International Review of Education. 2019;65(4):633-53.

[10] Morris TH. Adaptivity through self-directed learning to meet the challenges of our ever-changing world. Adult Learning. 2019;30(2):56-66.

[11] Bolliger D, Erichsen E. Student satisfaction with blended and online courses based on personality type. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. 2013;39(1):1-23. /10.21432/t2b88w

[12] Strong R, Irby TL, Wynn JT, McClure MM. Investigating students’ satisfaction with elearning courses: The effect of learning environment and social presence. Journal of Agricultural Education. 2012;53(3):98-110.

[13] Ho LA. The antecedents of e-learning outcome: An examination of system quality, technology readiness, and learning behavior. Adolescence. 2009;44(175):581-99.

[14] Al-Rahmi WM, Othman MS, Yusuf LM. Exploring the factors that affect student satisfaction through using e-learning in Malaysian higher education institutions. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2015;6(4):299-310.

[15] Nortvig AM, Petersen AK, Hattesen S. A literature review of the factors influencing e-learning and blended learning in relation to learning outcome, student satisfaction and engagement. Electronic Journal of E-learning. 2018;16:46–55.

[16] Curran V, Gustafson DL, Simmons K, Lannon H, Wang C, Garmsiri M. Adult learners’s perceptions of self-directed learning and digital technology usage in continuing professional education: An update for the digital age. Journal of Adult and Continuing Education. 2019;25(1):74–93. 1477971419827318

[17] Zhu, M.; Bonk, C. J.; Doo, M. Y. (2020). Self-directed learning in MOOCs: exploring the relationships among motivation, self-monitoring, and self-management, Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 68, No. 5, 2073–2093. doi:10.1007/s11423-020-09.

[18] Knowles M. Self-directed learning. New York: Association Press; 1975.

[19] Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change., Psychological Review, Vol. 84, No. 2, 191–215. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191.

[20] Zimmerman BJ. Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 2000;25(1):82-91.

[21] Geng S, Law KM, Niu B. Investigating self-directed learning and technology readiness in blending learning environment. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. 2019;16(1):1-22. https://

[22] Fisher MJ, King J. The self-directed learning readiness scale for nursing education revisited: A confirmatory factor analysis. Nurse Education Today. 2010;30(1):44-8. 10.1016/j.nedt.2009.05.020

[23] Kumar, C. B.; Potnis, A.; Gupta, S. (2015). Video conferencing system for distance education, 2015 IEEE UP Section Conference on Electrical Computer and Electronics (UPCON), IEEE, 1–6. doi:10.1109/UPCON.2015.7456682

[24] 24 Themelis, C.; Sime, J.-A. (2020). From Video-Conferencing to Holoportation and Haptics: How Emerging Technologies Can Enhance Presence in Online Education?, 261–276. doi:10.1007/978-981-15-0618-5_16

[25] L. Mishra, T. Gupta, and A. Shree, “Online Teaching-Learning in Higher Education during Lockdown Period of COVID-19 Pandemic.,” International Journal of Educational Research Open. vol. 1, 1-8, 2020.

[26] Wei HC, Chou C. Online learning performance and satisfaction: Do perceptions and readiness matter? Distance Education. 2020;41(1):48-69. 768