The Implementation of Corporal Punishment in Qanun Number 14 of 2003 Concerning Khalwat (Seclusion) in Aceh Darussalam Province


The government has authorized the implementation of Islamic law in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) Province as Islamic teachings in every aspect of life. The government has validated five qanun directly related to Islamic law and court: Qanun Number 13 of 2003 about maisir; Qanun Number 14 of 2003 about khalwat; Qanun Number 7 of 2004 about zakat administrator. This research is qualitative research using a normative sociological approach. The results of this study indicate that there are at least six kinds of obstacles that hinder the implementation of corporal punishment in Aceh, namely: the substance of the qanun on seclusion is weak; lack of political will from the Aceh government to implement the agency’s criminal law earnestly; various perceptions of the qanun khalwat among Acehnese and students; reluctance of law enforcement officers to put the policies into practice; limited public pressure; and the low budget for the enforcement of Islamic law in Aceh. Those results implied the absence of legal certainty.

[1] Al Yasa’ Abubakar, Islamic Sharia in the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam; Paradigms, Policies and Activities, (Banda Aceh: Syariat Service of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province, 2006), 116-7.

[2] Mahdi Syihab, ”Shari’a Enforcement: Ethnography of Dayah Santri Raid Actions in North Aceh”, in Arskal Salim and Adlin Sila (ed.), The Changing Veranda of Mecca, ( Jakarta: Pustaka Alvabet and ARTI, 2010), 58.

[3] See Arskal Salim, ”Sharia from Below’ in ACEH (1930s–1960s): Islamic Identity and the Right to Self-Determination with Comparative Reference to the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)”, Indonesia and the Malay World, Vol. 32, Issue 92, 2004, 80 – 99.

[4] See Qanun Nomor 14 Tahun 2003 tentang Khalwat.

[5] Hasanudin Yusuf Adan,, Topic Nanggroe Aceh, Forms of Shari’ah Violations in the Community, Sunday 12/08/2007@20:37:21; Husni Mubarrak A. Latief and Bukhari Ali, “The Problems of Legislation of Qanun Jinayat in Aceh Post Implementation of the Aceh Government Law (UUPA)”, Research Report, Banda Aceh: Research Institute (Lemlit) IAIN Ar-Raniry, 2012.

[6] Riduan Syarani, Summary of the Essence of Legal Studies, (Bandung: PT. Citra Aditya Bakti, 2004), 27.

[7] Barda Nawawi Arif, Head of Criminal Law Selection, (Bandung: PT Citra Aditya Bakti, 2003), 45-46.

8] Tongat, Criminal Life in the Indonesian Criminal Law System, (Malang: UMM Pres, 2004), 58.

[9] Barda Nawawi Arief, Comparative Criminal Law Lecture Material, (Semarang: Master of Law, Diponegoro University, tt).

[10] Punishment 15:55, November 1, 2014.

[11] Interview with Abdul Halim Barkatullah, one of Aceh People, October 3, 2021.

[12] Mahdi, , “Legal System for Enforcement of Qanun Jinayah in Aceh”, Media Syariah, Vol. XIII No. 2.. (2011)

[13] Armia Ibrahim, ”Legal Process against Violations of Islamic Sharia Qanun”. Material 192 | Sharia Media, Vol. XIII No. 2 July – December 2011 Briefing of Islamic Sharia Qanuns for Ulama/Women Leaders in Banda Aceh City. April 27-28.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ridwan Nurdin, (2018), “The Position of Aceh’s Jinayat Qanun in the Indonesian National Criminal Law System”, MIQOT, Vol. XLII No. 2.

[16] Interview with Saifuddin, Lecturer in Syah Kuala University, October 2, 2021.

[17] Alyasa’ Abubakar, (2008), “Islamic Shari’a in NAD Province; Paradigms, Policies and Activities”, 5th Issue. Banda Aceh: NAD Province Islamic Shari’a Service.

[18] Usamah, et.all, (2018), ”Understanding and Introduction to the Qanun on Jinayat Law for Remote Area Communities in North Aceh (Research Studies in Alue Leuhop and Cot Girek Villages, Cot Girek District, North Aceh Regency)”, Bidayah: Scientific Studies Islamic Sciences, Volume 9, No. 2..

[19] Interview with Moslem Leader in Aceh, September 20, 2021.

[20] H Bambang Antariksa, (2017), ”The position of Aceh Qanun in terms of History, Arrangement, Function, and Content Material of Qanun”, Scientific Journal: Advocates”, Vol. 05 No. 01..

[21] Cut Maya Apita Sari, (2016), “Pros and Cons of the Implementation of Islamic Sharia Qanun in Aceh”, Journal: JRP, Vol. 6, No. 1.