Collaborative Governance for Reopening Schools in Indonesia Following the COVID-19 Pandemic
Due to COVID-19, there has been a change in the teaching process and climate in schools and universities. Teaching that was originally carried out face-to-face was changed to online learning. This study was carried out to examine how a policy to accelerate the opening of face-to-face learning known as Surat Keputusan Bersama 4 Menteri or a Joint Decree of 4 Ministers (namely the Minister of Religion Affairs, of Health, of Home Affairs, and of Education, Culture, Research and Technology) has been implemented and its impact. This joint decree regulates how schools are allowed to open after a reduction in cases of COVID-19. Data were collected from relevant regulations, government documents and scientific papers. It was revealed that this joint decree, which is based on the roles and responsibilities of each ministry at the central and region level, has been differently perceived and implemented. The success of accelerating school openings is determined by the level of collaborative governance where the related elements, namely local government, schools, parents and the community, understand their respective roles and are open and accountable to any existing problems and mitigation actions when new clusters emerge. The leadership of regional heads is the key to the safety and health of students and education personnel in conducting face-to-face learning after COVID-19. In addition, media campaigns must be encouraged to achieve a common perception among various stakeholders.
Keywords: school reopening, post-COVID-19, Indonesia, collaborative governance
 U-Report Indonesia. Opinions: Rencana kembali ke sekolah di masa COVID-19. Jakarta: UNICEF; 2020 Jun.
 Laurence EL, Hill CJ, Heinrich CJ. Improving governance: A new logic for empirical research. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press; 2001.
 Smith BC. Good governance and development. New York: Palgrave MacMillan; 2007 Aug 21.
 Sobal J. Teaching with Secondary Data. Teaching Sociology. 1981 Jan;8(2):149-170.
 Vartanian TP. Secondary Data Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press; 2010.
 Heaton Janet. Reworking Qualitative Data. Vol. 1, Nurse Researcher. 2004. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr.12.4.91.s8
 Fielding * M. Transformative approaches to student voice: theoretical underpinnings, recalcitrant realities. British Educational Research Journal. 2004 Apr;30(2):295–311. https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192042000195236
 Hinds PS, Vogel RJ, Clarke-Steffen L. The Possibilities and Pitfalls of Doing a Secondary Analysis of a Qualitative Data Set. Qualitative Health Research. 1997 Aug 1;7(3):408–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973239700700306
 UNICEF. UNICEF education COVID-19 response update. Jakarta: UNICEF; 2020 Oct.
 KPAI R.N. Survei pelaksanaan pembelajaran jarak jauh (PJJ) dan sistem penilaian jarak jauh berbasis pengaduan KPAI. Jakarta: KPAI; 2021 Feb
 Puslitjak Kemendikbudristek. Learning recovery-time for action, Policy Brief. Jakarta: INOVASI. 2021 Aug;
 Irawan AW, Dwisona D, Lestari M. Psychological Impacts of Students on Online. Learning During the Pandemic COVID-19. KONSELI : Jurnal Bimbingan dan Konseling (E-Journal). 2020 May 31;7(1):53–60. https://doi.org/10.24042/kons.v7i1.6389
 World Health Organization. Considerations for school-related public health measures in the context of COVID-19: annex to considerations in adjusting public health and social measures in the context of COVID-19. Geneva: WHO; 2020 Sep 14.
 Ansell C, Gash A. Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2007 Oct 17;18(4):543–71. https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/mum032
 Kramer R, Gray B. Collaborating: Finding Common Ground for Multiparty Problems. The Academy of Management Review. 1990 Jul;15(3):545. https://doi.org/10.2307/258026
 UNESCO. Executive summary: What’s next? Lessons on education recovery: Findings from a survey of ministries of education amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Paris: 2021 Jun.