Geospatial Artificial Intelligence for Early Detection of Forest and Land Fires


Over the years, early detection of forest and land fires has been conducted using hotspot data provided by the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), based on its interpretation of satellite images. The hotspot data have tremendously helped firefighting efforts and further enforcement. However, the system has several shortcomings, especially due to its inability to distinguish forest and land fires from other hot surfaces or fires caused by common human activities. Furthermore, this method also requires labor-intensive verification, and heavily relies on human factors for advanced analysis and validation. Recently, the DG of Law Enforcement of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (DGLE MoEF) has been piloting a new approach through advancement in artificial intelligence, called Geospatial Artificial Intelligence (GeoAI). By utilizing recorded satellite image data from 2017 - 2019, the machine has been trained to recognize the pattern and tone of the image in burnt areas so that it can validate the presence of the burnt area based on the history of Sentinel-2 imagery for the past week at each cluster. DGLE MoEF found that the burnt area data processed by GeoAI has better accuracy than the hotspot count for forest and land fire identification. Moreover, GeoAI may ease forest and land fire analysis and verification by automatically overlaying forest area and company concessions at the burnt area. GeoAI’s innovation in forest and land fire monitoring can produce more accurate and complete early detection data of forest and land fires than currently available hotspot data. The results of hotspot clustering that detect fires may assist firefighters in rapidly extinguishing the fire, and support law enforcement officers in determining the appropriate target location. Therefore, GeoAI technology may increase the effectiveness and efficiency of resources allocated by law enforcement officers in providing better and more responsive public services.

Keywords: GeoAI, geospatial technology, artificial intelligence, forest fire, hotspot

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