English Language Teaching in Indonesia in the 21st Century: What Needs Reinforcing and Enhancing for the Teachers


English has been the first foreign language taught in the secondary schools in Indonesia since 1946, a year after its independence in 1945, which means that the teaching of English as a foreign language (TEFL) in Indonesia has run for almost 75 years. As the world has experienced the Industrial Revolution 4.0 since 2011 with its three principal characteristics that lie greatly on the employment of technology: innovation, automation, and information transfer, some reinforcement and enhancement need to be taken for the teachers of English to adjust with the current development, which basically centres upon the teachers’ professional and pedagogic competences. The former includes the proficiency of the four English language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing (language performance), and the mastery of the four English language components: grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronouncing systems (language competence). The latter includes the theories of learning from the perspectives of functional- physiological, behaviouristic, cognitive/gestalt, and constructive-humanistic psychology and the insight and knowledge of innovative learning, such as digital learning, blended learning, and neuro-science-based learning. Furthermore, the latter also includes the knowledge of contemporary learning theories or alternative learning theories, such as transformative learning, disruptive learning, connectivism learning, and multiple intelligences theories. English teachers equipped with the content of the two competences can most likely face the challenges and changes of the 21st century.

Keywords: professional and pedagogic competences, learning theories, contemporary learning theories

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