Intensification Cycle in Digital Diplomacy
The path of the international system is driven by political, economic, and social developments. COVID-19 has been an influential and transformative crisis which has had a huge impact on the world order. It has highly affected international affairs, is capable of transforming the system and is one of the world’s major occurrences since the Second World War. The first impact has been that the crisis has forced all areas of public and private life into a rapid digitization process. In fact, the process had started before the pandemic, but the COVID-19 crisis triggered the transition process at an extraordinary intensity. As in a variety of other sectors, digital diplomacy has been highly impacted by the coronavirus pandemic, which has brought momentum to the digitalization process of diplomacy. This paper analyzes digital diplomacy in the digital age, with a focus on the impact of the coronavirus pandemic. The research uses a theoretical framework that clarifies the distinctions between traditional and new public diplomacy. The article addresses the process of diplomacy responding to the new normal requirements in terms of technical impact. It provides an overview of the digitalization process of diplomacy, which was intensified by the pandemic, and examines the post-coronavirus global trends in terms of potential assumptions.
Keywords: public diplomacy, digitalization of diplomacy, new world order, coronavirus
 Manheim JB. Strategic public diplomacy: The evolution of influence. New York: Oxford University Press; 1990.
 Nye JS. Public diplomacy and soft power. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2008;616(1):94–109.
 Nye JS. Soft power: The means to success in world politics. New York: Public Affairs; 2004.
 Melissen J. The Oxford handbook of modern diplomacy. Cooper AF, Heine J, Thakur R, editors. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2013.
 Gregory B. American public diplomacy: Enduring characteristics, elusive transformation. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy. 2011;6(3/4):353–369.
 Snow N. Routledge handbook of public diplomacy. Snow N, Taylor PM, editors. New York: Routledge International Handbooks; 2009.
 Seib P. Real-time diplomacy: Politics and power in the social media era. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan; 2012.
 Holmes M. Digital diplomacy: Theory and practice. Bjola C, Holmes C, editors. London: Taylor & Francis Group; 2015.  Kampf R, Manor I, Segev E. Digital diplomacy 2.0? A cross-national comparison of public engagement in Facebook and Twitter. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy. 2015;10(4):331–362.
 Westcott N. Digital diplomacy: The impact of the internet on international relations. Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute; 2008.
 Hanson F. Baked in and wired: eDiplomacy@State. Foreign Policy Paper Series. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution; 2012.
 Kurt G. Social media research. Yengin D, editor. Istanbul: Paloma Publishing House; 2015.
 Manor I, Segev C. Digital diplomacy: Theory and practice. Bjola C, Holmes M, editors. New York: Routledge; 2015.
 Collins N, Bekenova K. Digital diplomacy: Success at your fingertips. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 2019;15(1):1–11.
 Schmidt E, Cohen J. The new digital age: Reshaping the future of people, nations and business. New York: Knopf; 2013.
 Manor I, Pamment J. Towards prestige mobility? Diplomatic prestige and digital diplomacy. Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 2019;32(2):93–131.
 Strauß N, Kruikemeier S, van der Meulen H, van Noort G. Digital diplomacy in GCC countries: Strategic communication of Western embassies on Twitter. Government Information Quarterly. 2015;32(4):369–379.
 Philipps L, Braun D. The future of multilateralism, the liberal order under pressure. Berlin, Germany: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung; 2020 Oct 5. Available from: https://www.kas.de/en/web/auslandsinformationen/artikel/detail/-/ content/the-future-of-multilateralism
 World Bank. Poverty. Overview. World Bank; 2020 Oct 14. Available from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/poverty/overview#:$\sim$:text= A%20%E2%80%9Cnowcast%E2%80%9D%20(preliminary%20estimate,urban% 20than%20the%20chronic%20poor
 Bremmer I. The next global depression is coming and optimism won’t slow it down. Time; 2020 Aug 6. Available from: https://time.com/5876606/economic-depressioncoronavirus/
 Sharma A. No look back for the India-US strategic partnership: The US has delivered on the India-China standoff. Times of India [internet]. 2020 Sep 26. Available from: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/ashoks-statecraft/no-look-back-forthe-india-us-strategic-partnership-the-us-has-delivered-on-india-china-standoff/
 Varoufakis Y, McWilliams D. There is a glimmer of hope: Economists on coronavirus and capitalism. The Guardian [internet]. 2020 May 6.