Menopause Status and Risk Factors for COVID-19 in the Elderly


The cessation of the menstrual cycle in women (menopause), which usually occurs in women aged over 40 years, is often accompanied by significant impacts on both physical and psychological health. During menopause, women experience a decrease in estrogen levels which is a protective factor in the woman’s body by decreasing chemokine ligand 2 expression during inflammation. Postmenopausal women who have experienced a decrease in their protective agents are more susceptible to being exposed to viruses. This study identified the correlation between menopause status and risk factors for COVID-19 by using Spearman rho. The participants in this retrospective cross-sectional study were 30 elderly women, 33 to 64 years old, at Posyandu lansia (Integrated Health Care System for Elderly) who expressed their willingness to participate in this study from April 1st until June 19th, 2022, by online survey or by filling out the menopause health and risk factor of COVID-19 questionnaires manually. Risk factors of COVID-19, such as comorbid disease, lack of exercise, low healthy life patterns, and obesity, have a significant correlation with the menopausal status of elder women. Half of them had graduated from senior high school and got menarche at 9 years old. Twenty per cent of them had a risk factor of COVID-19, and more than half of them used contraception. The number of elder people who were already in menopause was 27 per cent. Elderly people should improve their immune systems and prepare for menopause to lower the incidence of COVID-19 infection.

Keywords: COVID-19, elderly, menopause, risk factors

[1] Arya V, Bajpai R, Bajpai A, Kathuria NS, Gupta A. Is menopause a potential risk factor for severity of COVID-19: A retrospective cross-sectional study? Asian J Med Sci. 2021;12(9):11–6.

[2] Ding T, Zhang J, Wang T, Cui P, Chen Z, Jiang J, et al. A Multi-hospital Study in Wuhan, China:Protective Effects of Non-menopause and Female Hormones on SARS-CoV-2 infection. medRxiv. 2020

[3] Ita Eko Suparni RY. Menopause?: Masalah dan Penanggulangannya. CV BUDI UTAMA; 2016. pp. 11–6.

[4] Kemenkes RI. Profil Kesehatan Indonesia. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

[5] Sihotang NS. Efektifitas susu kedelai terhadap penurunan gejala hot flush pada wanita klimakterium. Excellent Midwifery Journal. 2018;1(4):61–7.

[6] Ochi S, So M, Hashimoto S, Denda K, Sekizawa Y. Behavioral factors associated with covid-19 risk: A cross-sectional survey in japan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Nov;18(22):12184.

[7] Arya V, Bajpai R, Bajpai A, Kathuria NS, Gupta A. Is menopause a potential risk factor for severity of COVID-19: A retrospective cross-sectional study? Asian J Med Sci. 2021 Sep;12(9):11–6.

[8] Adelekan Y, Asunramu MH, Bhullar K, Duah-Asante K, Madaan A, Poku D, et al. TIME FOR CHANGE: improving the menopausal experience in the workplace for UK doctors. Maturitas. 2021 Oct;152:73–4.

[9] Sanyaolu A, Okorie C, Marinkovic A, Patidar R, Younis K, Desai P, et al. Comorbidity and its Impact on Patients with COVID-19. SN Compr Clin Med. 2020;2(8):1069–76.

[10] Felice MC, Sndergaard ML, Balaam M. Resisting the medicalisation of menopause: Reclaiming the body through design. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings. 2021.

[11] Hamoda H, Moger S. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the delivery of menopause education and training. Post Reproductive Health. SAGE Publications Ltd; 2021;(27):3–4.

[12] Wang XW, Hu H, Xu ZY, Zhang GK, Yu QH, Yang HL, et al. Association of menopausal status with COVID-19 outcomes: a propensity score matching analysis. Biol Sex Differ. 2021 Jan;12(1):16.

[13] Gersh FL, Lavie CJ. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy in the 21st century. Heart. BMJ Publishing Group; 2020(106);479–81.