Agrophysical Properties of Ordinary Chernozem as the Basis of Stability of Modern Agriculture
The optimal parameters of agrophysical soil properties are important for ensuring favorable conditions for plant development. This study found a significant impact of various tillage technologies on the agrophysical state of ordinary chernozem. The long-term use of the no-till technology decreased soil density in the arable and root-inhabited (0-60 cm) layers. Before sowing winter crops using the no-till method, the soil had the best porosity level - more than 57%. Due to the reduction of agricultural machinery passes through the field, the structural aggregates increased to 52.6%, which was 12.7% more than during the dump treatment. Improving the agrophysical state of the soil with the no-till technology had a significant impact on the water permeability of the soil and its water regime. When using the no-till technology, the best agrophysical soil properties in the arable layer had a decisive influence on the yield of the field crops. In 2006-2018, the no-till technology provided a steady yield gain of 3.1-5.2 kg / ha or 6.5-38.2%. The long-term use of the no-till technology ensured the conservation of the soil, demonstrating the environmental benefits of this technology. The optimal agrophysical properties of ordinary chernozem when using the no-till technology ensured the effective use of moisture, improved the field crop productivity, and enabled more effective conservation of arable land in the arid conditions of the Rostov region.
Keywords: agrophysical soil properties, porosity, water permeability, productivity, no-till technology
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