Contemporary Direction of Eggplant Selection for the South of Russia


Eggplant selection is crucial for the south of Russia due to the concentration of production and processing capacities in this region. When selecting eggplants, regional characteristics, in particular specific stressors, should be taken into account. The main stressors are low temperatures in the initial period of plant growth and development, sharp changes in soil and air temperature and humidity during the growing season, high temperatures during crop formation, and harmful fungal and mycoplasma diseases. It is possible to reduce the dependence on imports by developing production in spring greenhouses, which will extend the consumption period by 3-4 months. This requires varieties and hybrids with specific properties: high productivity, high adaptability, compact habit of plants, lack of thorns, low pubescence, etc. F1 hybrids combining high productivity with adaptability and product quality can grow in greenhouses. When collecting linear materials for creating hybrids, it is advisable to use hard provocative backgrounds with a subsequent assessment of the combinational ability. This research aimed to develop new varieties and hybrids of eggplant for the south of Russia. The study was conducted in the Rostov Selection and Seed Center in 2010-2019 on fields and in spring greenhouses. Materials from different regions of the world were collected. Varieties and hybrids were evaluated by their valuable traits and properties. Linear materials were created for sources and donors of characters that are in demand. The collection of the best varieties was involved in selection programs for creating an assortment for the south of Russia. More than 10 eggplant varieties and hybrids with high productivity and adaptive qualities were obtained.

Keywords: eggplant, source material, variety, hybrid, selection, signs, applications, stability, heterosis

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