Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Self-Management Behavior Practice Among People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM)
Diabetes mellitus is a major health challenge associated with morbidity and mortality. Self-management behaviors are a critical part of diabetes disease management. Empowered or activated patients are more likely to practice better implementation of self-management behaviors. However, self-management behavior practice has not always been applied effectively among these populations. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the status and factors that influence the practice of selfmanagement behaviors among patients with diabetes. The purpose of this research is to identify the relationship between self-efficacy and self-management behaviors of people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study; 112 eligible people with type 2 Diabetes were recruited. Several questionnaires were used in this study including demographic and patient characteristics, Diabetes Management Self Efficacy Scale (DMSES), Summary Diabetes Self Care Activity (SDSCA), and Diabetes Knowledge (DKN) Scale. Data analysis was performed through univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyzes. Most of the respondents studied were women, aged 34-74 years and the highest educational background was secondary education, 33.9% of respondents have a good level of knowledge, and 59.8% have good self-efficacy. The results show the significant relationship between self-efficacy and self-management behaviors (p-value < 0.001). The results of multivariate analysis showed that there was a relationship between self-efficacy and self-management behavior after being controlled by the knowledge and the duration of diabetes. Therefore, nurses need to improve the self-efficacy of people with type 2 Diabetes by providing education about the management of Diabetes, as well as supporting and motivating them.
Keywords: self-efficacy, self-management behaviors, people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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