Environmental Regimes of Drained Soils of the Novgorod Region
Under the influence of drainage, new ecological regimes of groundwater and soil moisture are formed, which in turn form new nutrient regimes. The objects of this study are the ecological regimes of lands reclaimed in different ways: by an open drainage network (with the use of runoff hollows) and a closed drainage network. Experimental plots are located in the Novgorod region on sod-podzolic soil. The efficiency of the reclamation system is determined by the groundwater regime. The results of the research prove that the regime of groundwater in closed drainage systems is more favorable compared to the open drainage system. The analysis of the nutrient regime of drained soils showed a decrease in agrochemical indicators due to the removal of minerals by runoff. More mineral salts are washed away in closed drainage (up to 711 kg/ha). Considering the agrochemical composition of the soil, calcium ions are removed most intensively from sod-podzolic soils. The water-physical properties of the drained lands, such as density, porosity and moisture content, have also changed. The study of water-air regimes of reclaimed soils revealed a significant difference in the degree of moisture of the plow and subsurface layers when implementing either one or different methods of drainage. A more favorable water-air regime is created by closed drainage systems in the subsurface layer, and by open drainage systems – in the plow layer.
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