Environmental Regimes of Drained Soils of the Novgorod Region


Under the influence of drainage, new ecological regimes of groundwater and soil moisture are formed, which in turn form new nutrient regimes. The objects of this study are the ecological regimes of lands reclaimed in different ways: by an open drainage network (with the use of runoff hollows) and a closed drainage network. Experimental plots are located in the Novgorod region on sod-podzolic soil. The efficiency of the reclamation system is determined by the groundwater regime. The results of the research prove that the regime of groundwater in closed drainage systems is more favorable compared to the open drainage system. The analysis of the nutrient regime of drained soils showed a decrease in agrochemical indicators due to the removal of minerals by runoff. More mineral salts are washed away in closed drainage (up to 711 kg/ha). Considering the agrochemical composition of the soil, calcium ions are removed most intensively from sod-podzolic soils. The water-physical properties of the drained lands, such as density, porosity and moisture content, have also changed. The study of water-air regimes of reclaimed soils revealed a significant difference in the degree of moisture of the plow and subsurface layers when implementing either one or different methods of drainage. A more favorable water-air regime is created by closed drainage systems in the subsurface layer, and by open drainage systems – in the plow layer.

[1] Balun, O.V., Baiutina, L.A. (2004). Ways to increase the fertility of excessively moist soils. Plodorodie, Fertility, no. 1, p. 25.

[2] Boitsov, A.S. (2013). The development of the reclamation of agricultural land in the Novgorod region for the period of 2014-2020. Achievements of Modern Science to Agricultural Production, in Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific-Practical Conference Dedicated to the 25th Anniversary of the Novgorod Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture. State Scientific Establishment Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture Russian Academy of Agriculture. “Boomerang” Publ., pp. 44–60.

[3] Povilaytis, A., Lamsodis, R., Bastiyen, N. (2015). Agricultural drainage in Lithuania: overview of practices and environmental impacts. Soil and Science for Plants, vol. 65. Special issue: see appendix 1, pp. 14–29: 30 March 2015.

[4] Radu, Oprea, Tsimpeanu, Sorin, Mikhay, Teodoresku, RazvanIonut. (2017). Technical efficiency of subsurface drainage on agricultural lands: meadows and rivers of Moldova Modern Perspective on Irrigation and Drainage, pp. 69–81.

[5] Ustinov, M.T., Glistin, M.V. (2018). Critical groundwater level as a criterion of ecological-ameliorative state of soils. Melioratsiia i vodnoe khoziaistvo. Reclamation and Water Management, no. 3, pp.14–16.

[6] Zinkovskaia, T.S., Kovalev, N.G., Zinkovskii, V.I. (2016). Optimization of soil water regime in potato cultivation on drained lands. Melioratsiiaivodnoekhoziaistvo. Reclamation and Water Management, no. 1, pp.40–44.

[7] Booman, Gisel C., Latera, Pedro (2019). The direction of agricultural drainage flows makes it impossible to remove nutrients. Zhurnal Ekologicheskogo Kachestva – The Journal of Ecological Quality, vol. 48, issue 2, pp. 459–468.

[8] Khu, Tsyuli, Yan, Yonkhuey, Khan, Shumin. (2019). Deterioration of the quantity and quality of drainage water in agriculture as a result of the expansion of agricultural land and water-saving operations in arid basins. Agricultural Water Management, vol. 213, pp.185–192.

[9] Povilaitis, A., Rudzianskaite, A., Miseviciene. (2018).The efficiency of drainage practices to improve water quality in Lithuania, in Proceedings of the 10th International Drainage Symposium. Minneapolis, Minnesota.

[10] Guidelines for setting up and conducting experiments on drainage systems (1983). Leningrad.