Aspects for Priority Protection Assessment of Abiotic Components to Oil Exposure


The analytical review was prepared to assess coefficients of priority protection the features of special significance for mapping the vulnerability of marine coastal zones from oil pollution. Nowadays, this issue is a rather complex scientific problem, because there is no consensus on how to evaluate, calculate and how to present them. In most cases, such coefficients are given by one or more parameters in relative units (points, ranks). As a rationale, only criteria are given, taking into account which it is determined how much one object is more important for protection than another, and specific values are based mainly on the subjective expert’s opinion and are therefore ambiguous. At the same time, the availability of maps showing the environmental vulnerability of marine coastal zones is very important in case of emergency oil spills, as it facilitates the indicating of priorities for cleaning, especially at the initial stages of spill response and minimizes potential damage to the natural and man-made environment. This paper proposes approaches, where the basis for obtaining quantitative standardizable indicators of priority protection the features of special significance presented with minimal subjectivity and maximum generality.

[1] International Maritime Organization, International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IMO, IPIECA). (1996). Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response. Oil Spill Report Series, vol. 1, p. 28.

[2] International Maritime Organization, International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association, International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (IMO, IPIECA, OGP). Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response in Report IOGP No. 477, p. 39.

[3] Methodological Approaches to Ecologically Sensitive Areas and Areas of Priority Protection Map Development and Coastline of the Russian Federation to Oil Spills. (2012). Murmansk: World Wildlife Fund (WWF).

[4] Shavykin, A., Karnatov, A. (2018). Main Development Problems of Vulnerability Mapping of Sea-Coastal Zones to Oil Spills. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 6, p. 115.

[5] Khovanov, N.V. (1996). Analysis and synthesis of indicators in information deficit. St. Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University.

[6] Orlov, A.I. (2011). Organizational-economic modeling: in 3 parts. Part 2: Expert evaluation. Moscow: Bauman MSTU.

[7] Zaks, L. (1976). Statistical estimation. Moscow, M.: “Statistic”.

[8] Kalinka, O. P., Karnatov, A. N. (2016). The vulnerability coefficients evaluation for biological organisms of the Kola Bay from the effects of oil, in Proceedings of the 34th conference of young scientists of the MMBI. Murmansk: MMBI, KSC RAS.

[9] Kola Bay and oil: biota, vulnerability maps, pollution (2018). Saint Petersburg, SPb: Renome.

[10] Blinovskaya, Ya. Yu. (2006). Sensitivity maps of the coastal-marine zone of north-eastern Sakhalin to oil pollution. Geografical and geoecological investigations in the Far East. Dalnauka, Vol. 2, pp. 101–109.

[11] Blinovskaya, Ya. Yu. (2010). Integrated assessment methods for environmental sensitivity of coastal and marine zones to oil pollution (by the example of the South of the Far East). PhD thesis, Russian state University of oil and gas named after I. M. Gubkin.

[12] Kalinka, O. P. (2011). Proposals for the unified methodology mapping the vulnerability of marine areas and coasts for OSR plans, in Proceedings of the 27th conference of young scientists of the MMBI. Murmansk: MMBI, KSC RAS.

[13] Novikov, M. A. (2006). Integrated assessment methodology of ecological vulnerability and fishery value of marine waters (on the example of the Barents and White seas). Murmansk: PINRO.

[14] Novikov, M. A. (2013) Integrated assessment of ecological and fishery vulnerability of marine areas: from theory to practice. Murmansk: PINRO. [15] Offringa, H., Låhr, J. (SafetyatSea). (May 2007). An integrated approach to map ecologically vulnerable areas in marine waters in the Netherlands (V-maps). (Report No. A09. Revision No. 4, p. 93). Centre for Ecosystem Studies.

[16] Pogrebov, V. B., Puzachenko, A. Yu. (2003). Integral sensitivity of marine ecosystems to oil pollution, in Proceedings of the 5th scientific seminar ”memory Readings of K. M. Deryugin”. St. Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University press.

[17] Pogrebov, V.B. (2010) Integral assessment of the environmental sensitivity of the biological resources of the coastal zone to anthropogenic influences. Volume 2. Basic concepts of modern coastal using. St. Petersburg: Russian State Hydrometeorological University.

[18] Project on sub-regional risk of spill of oil and hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea (BRISK). (September 2009). Method note. (Document No. P- 070618-1-01, p. 42). Admiral Danish Fleet HQ, National Operations, Maritime Environment.

[19] Project on sub-regional risk of spill of oil and hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea (BRISK). ( January 2012). Environmental Vulnerability. (Document No. Ver. 1, 79 p.). Admiral Danish Fleet HQ, National Operations, Maritime Environment.

[20] Protection of United Kingdom waters from pollution from ships (2006) Establishment of Marine Environmental High Risk Areas (MEHRAs) in the UK (Report No: ST-87639-MI-1-Rev 01, p. 69). Department for Transport, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

[21] Risk assessment and collaborative emergency response in the Irish sea (RACER). (May 2000). Coastal zone sensitivity. (Final report, p. 117). Maritime INTERREG.

[22] Secretariat at the workshop of the Contracting Parties of the Bonn Agreement and COWI. (September 2014). Results from Be-Aware II environmental and socioeconomic sensitivity ranking workshop. (Report No. BONN 05/2/4E, 22 pp).

[23] Shavykin, A.A., Ilyn, G.V. (2010). Integral vulnerability assessment of the Barents Sea from oil contamination. Murmansk: MMBI KSC RAS.

[24] Statens forurensningstilsyn (SFT). ( Juni 2004) Modell for prioritering av miljøressurser ved akutte oljeutslipp langs kysten (TA-nummer 1765/2000, p. 16). Beredskap mot akutt forurensning. [State Pollution Control (SFT). (June 2004) Model for the prioritizing of natural resources to oil pollution in the coastal zone. (Report No. 1765/2000, p. 16). Readiness for acute contamination].

[25] Stevens L., Roberts, J. (2005). Incorporating consequence analysis into oil spill risk assessment in New Zealand, in Proceedings of an International Oil Spill Conference, Risk Assessment/Management. IOSC.

[26] Det Norske Veritas (DNV). (2011). Assessment of the Risk of Pollution from Marine Oil Spills in Australian Ports and Waters. (Report No. PP002916, 50 p). Australian Maritime Safety Authority.

[27] Etkin, D. S. (2004). Modeling oil spill response and damage costs. (Archive document, 15 p). US EPA.

[28] Egorova, E. N. (2004). Methodical bases for economic damage assessment arising as a result of emergency oil spills on sea water areas. Electronic journal ”Investigated in Russia”, pp. 955–971. Retrieved from:

[29] South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC). (February 1999). Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) to summarize national environmental vulnerability profiles. (Report No 275).

[30] Villa, F., McLeod, H. (2002). Environmental vulnerability indicators for environmental planning and decision-making: guidelines and applications. Environmental Management, vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 335–348.

[31] Hiscock, K. and Tyler-Walters, H. (2006). Assessing the sensitivity of seabed species and biotopes - the Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN). Hydrobiologia, vol. 555, pp. 309–320.

[32] Depellegrin, D., Blažauskas, N., de Groot, R. (2010). Mapping of sensitivity to oil spills in the Lithuanian Baltic Sea coast. Baltica, vol. 23(2), pp. 91–100.

[33] Maritime New Zealand (MNZ) and Navigatus Consulting Ltd. (2015). Marine Oil Spill Risk Assessment (MOSRA). (Final Report, p. 397).

[34] Thébault, H., Scheurle C., Duffa C., et al. (2014). Valuation and sensitivity of socio-economic activities along the French Mediterranean coast. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 754–768.

[35] Geselbracht, L., Logan, R. (1993.). Washington’s marine oil spill compensation schedule - simplified resource damage assessment, in Oil spill conference proceedings, pp. 705–709.

[36] Glantz, S.A. (2012). Primer of Biostatistics, New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies.

[37] Avdotin, V. P., Dzybov, M. M., Samsonov, K. P. (2012). Damage assessment from emergency situations of natural and technogenic character. Moscow, M.: EMERCOM of Russia.