Effect of Synthetic Detergents on Soil Erosion Resistance


The effect of soil contamination with synthetic detergents (SD) Labomid-203, MS-8 and ML-51 in combination with potassium monoborate (MBP) on the change in the potential of soil erosion resistance (PER) was evaluated. PER characterizes the soil resistance to water erosion and is equal to the energy of a water jet acting perpendicular to the soil surface, required for the destruction and removal of a unit of soil mass from the area of its natural occurrence. Soil water retention curve (SWRC) and hydraulic conductivity were selected for the research as parameters determining soil erodibility. SWRC and moisture conductivity function are dependent on the surface tension and viscosity of the moisture in the soil, which are changed on soil contamination with surfactants of washing solutions. Integrating the expression for SWRC in the range of moisture content values from a fixed initial value to the value, corresponding to the complete filling of soil pores with moisture, gave the result correlating with the energy determining the potential for erosion resistance. Soil contamination with SD and MBP led to the significant decrease in soil erosion resistance, which is particularly evident at low moisture values. The largest decrease in soil erosion resistance (by an average of 39.6%) was caused by MS-8 (1.0% MS-8, 0.3% MBP). The smallest decrease in soil erosion resistance (by an average of 12.4%) was caused by ML-51 (0.5% ML-51, 0.1% MBP). The experiments were carried out with dark-gray and light-gray forest soils of the Chuvash Republic (Russia).

[1] Rodríguez-Eugenio, N., McLaughlin, M. and Pennock, D. (2018). Soil Pollution: a Hidden Reality. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[2] Lal, R. (2001). Soil degradation by erosion. Land Degradation and Development, vol. 12, pp. 519–539.

[3] Litvin, L. F., and Kiryukhina, Z. P. (2004). Soil erosion, nutrient migration and surface water pollution in Russia, in Sediment Transfer Through the Fluvial System: Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Moscow, Russia from 2 to 6 August 2004. Wallingford: International Association of Hydrological Sciences.

[4] Edwards, C. A. (2002). Assessing the effects of environmental 38(3-4)pollutants on soil organisms, communities, processes and ecosystems. European Journal of Soil Biology, vol. 38., pp. 225–231.

[5] Salah, M. M., and Al-Madhhachi, A. T. (2016). Influence of lead pollution on cohesive soil erodibility using jet erosion tests. Environment and Natural Resources Research, vol. 6(1), pp. 88–98.

[6] Korshenko, A., and Gul, A. G. (2005) Pollution of the Caspian Sea, in: The Caspian Sea Environment. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol. 5(P). Berlin: Springer.

[7] Zhuravel’, E. V., Bezverbnaya, I. P., and Buzoleva, L. S. (2004). Microbian indication of pollution of the coastal zone of the Sea of Okhotsk and Avacha Bay. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, vol. 30(2), pp. 121–126.

[8] Ghose, N. C., Saha, D. and Gupta, A. (2009). Synthetic detergents (surfactants) and organochlorine pesticide signatures in surface water and groundwater of Greater Kolkata, India. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, vol. 1(4), pp. 290–298.

[9] Mandic, L., Djukic, D., et al. (2006). Effect of different detergent concentrations on the soil microorganisms number. Acta Agriculturae Serbica, vol. 11(22), pp. 69–74.

[10] Rajkai, K., Kabos, S., and van Genuchten, M. T. (2004). Estimating the water retention curve from soil properties: comparison of linear, nonlinear and concomitant variable methods. Soil and Tillage Research, vol. 79(2), pp. 145–152.

[11] Byshov, N. V., Uspensky, I. A., et al. (2019). Changing the contact wetting angles when adding surfaceactive substances to washing solutions. Engineering Technologies and Systems, vol. 29(2), pp. 295– 305.

[12] Alekseev, V. V., and Maksimov, I. I. (2013). Aerodynamic method for obtaining the soil water retention curve. Eurasian Soil Science, vol. 46(7), pp. 751–757.

[13] Maksimov, I. I., Sirotkin, V. M., et al. (1999). Method determining potential of erosion resistance of soils in field. RF Patent No. 2,129,268.

[14] Maksimov, I., Alekseev, V., and Chuchkalov, S. (2019). Erosion resistance potential as a soil erodibility characteristic based on energy approach. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 226, 012067.

[15] Kuznetsov, Y. I. (1996). Organic Inhibitors of Corrosion of Metals. New York, NY: Plenum Press.