Ability Test of Acacia Nilotica Leaves and Extract As Water Disinfectants


The fulfillment of clean water that meets bacteriological requirements for urban areas is increasingly difficult due to the high contamination of groundwater by microbes. The use of chemical compounds as disinfectants always produces long-term side effects, it is necessary to develop plants that can be used as disinfectants. Acacia nilotica has the ability to kill aerobic and coliform bacteria so that it has the potential to disinfect water. The study aimed to examine the ability of leaves and extracts of A. nilotica leaves that grow in the Baluran National Park in East Java in reducing the number of aerobic and coliform bacteria in clean water used by the community. Water samples were taken from the residents of Rt 006/011 Kebayoran lama with bacteriological quality criteria Total Plate Number (TPC) above 4.0 x 10 [2]CFU and MPN Coliform> 2400 cells/100ml. The leaves of A. nilotica are used at concentrations of 30%, 40%, and 50%, and ethanol extract of leaves of A. nilotica 5%, 7.5%, and 10% after 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours of contact. A coliform examination was performed on TPC and MPN. The yield of A. nilotica leaves was effective in reducing aerobic bacteria to 99.6% at a concentration of 50% after 24-hour contact, while leaf extract reduced the number of aerobic germs to 99.7% at a concentration of 10%. While MPN Coliform is reduced to 99.5% in the application of 50% of leaves of A. nilotica, the extract of A. nilotica can reduce coliform MPN to 100% at a concentration of 10%.

[1] WHO and Unicef, Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, 2017 update and SDG baseline, Switzerland, 2017.

[2] Hari Air Sedunia, Separuh Warga Jakarta Tak Nikmati Air Bersih, Tempo.co, Rabu, 22 Maret 2017 15:10 WIB, https://metro.tempo.co/read/858468/hari-air-sedunia-separuh-warga-jakarta-tak-nikmatiair- bersih, diakses pada 24 Januari 2018, 3:52 AM.

[3] Kementerian Kesehatan Republlik Indonesia, Data dan Informasi Profil Kesehatan Indonesia 2016, Pusat Data dan Informasi, Kementerian Kesehatan RI, 2017.

[4] Achmad Hasan, Dampak Penggunaan Klorin, Jurnal Teknologi Ling. P3TL, BPPT, (1):90-96, 2006.

[5] Sapna Malviya, Swati Rawat, Anil Kharia and Meena Verma, Medicinal Attributes of Acacia nilotica Linn. A Comprehensive Review on Ethnopharmacological Claims, Int.J Pharm Life Sci (IJPLS), Vol.2, Issue 6:June:2011, 830-837.

[6] Djufri, Review: Acacia nilotica (L) Wild. Ex Del. dan Permasalahannya di Taman Nasional Baluran Jawa Timur. BIODIVERSITAS, Volume 5, Nomor 2, 2004, h.96-104.

[7] Duke. Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, New York: 2008, p, 2-6.

[8] Tanner J.C, J. D. Reeds and E. Owen, The nutritive value of fruits (pods with seeds) from four Acacia spp. compared with extracted noug (Guizotia abyssinica) meal as supplements to maize stover for ethiopian highland sheep, J. Animal Production/Volume 51/Issue 01/August 1990, pp 127–133.

[9] Angela N Ukwuani-Kwaja, Yakubu U Dabai, Rebecca Samuel and Joy O Odoh, Antibacterial Activity of Column Fractions of Acacia nilotica Leaves Extract, The Pharmaceutical and Chemical Journal, 2016, 3(3):38-42.

[10] D.S. Seigler, Phytochemistry of Acacia—sensu lato, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 31 (2003) 845–873, www.elsevier.com/locate/biochemsyseco

[11] Brahma N. Singh d, B.R. Singh a, R.L. Singh b, D. Prakash d, B.K. Sarma c, H.B. Singh c„ Antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of green pod of Acacia nilotica L. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47 (2009) 778–786, journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchemtox

[12] T. Kalaivani *, Lazar Mathew, Free radical scavenging activity from leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex Delile,an Indian medicinal tree, Food and Chemical Toxicology 48 (2010) 298–305, journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchemtox

[13] Kirui J.K; K. Kotut dan P.O Okerno, Efficacy of Aqueous Plant Extract in Disinfecting Water of Different Physichochemical Properties, Journal of Water and Health, 13.3, 2015: 848-852.

[14] Rahman A. Abdul Shakoor, Gul Zaib, Abdul Samad Mumtaz, Yasir Ihtesham, and Abdul Aziz Napar, Comparative Antimivrobial Activity of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves Extracts Againts Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi. Journa pf Medical Plant Research, Vo. 8 (29), pp 975-982, 2014.

[15] Kalaivani,T.,Rajasekaran,C.,Mathew,L.,2011.Free radical scavenging, cytotoxic, and hemolytic activities of anactive anti oxidant compound ethylgallate from leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild.ex DelileSubsp.indica(Benth.)Brenan.Food Sci. 76,1144–1149.