Features of Muscle Tissue Microstructure of Cattle in Industrial Agglomerations under the Environmental Pressure Conditions
The intensive development of the industrial sector, intensification of the agro-industrial complex, associated with the use of various fertilizers, active use of modern household chemicals lead to the constant increase in xenobiotics in the environment in both rural and urban agglomerations. There are settlements and farms within the industrial areas, therefore, the issue of accumulation of ecotoxicants in the organs and tissues of an animal, as well as the impact on the state of its health, is of particular importance. In the regions with tough environmental situation associated with anthropogenic contamination, xenobiotics of anthropogenic origin can directly or indirectly modify the activity of various body systems. The integral characteristic that reflects adaptive modifications of biota is the morphological and functional status of organs and tissues of an animal, including the state of muscle tissue. An analysis of the regenerative plastic potential of muscle tissue allows finding innovative approaches to assessing the effects of environmental impacts on animals. Up to the present day, the morphological and functional characteristics of muscle tissue in young animals and adult cattle have not been sufficiently studied in the conditions of the tough environmental situation of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation. The issue of ecological pathologies of organs in productive animals is quite urgent for the territory of the Central Federal District with its developed agro-industrial complex and industry. The study of animals from the agglomeration of the large chemical plant showed that cattle react differently to pollutants. The animals demonstrated changes not only in hematological and biochemical parameters, but also in the morphological and functional status of muscle tissue.
 Grebenshchikov, A.V., Danilov V.N., Lesnikova E.P. (2016). Peculiarities of veterinarysanitary examination of beef from regions with tense ecological situation. Tactical and strategic directions of innovative development tools in commodity management and Commerce. Voronezh.
 Anadón, A. (2016). Perspectives in Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, no. 3. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2016.00082.
 Meyer, H.H., Rinke, L.M. (1991). The pharmacokinetics and residues of clenbuterol in veal calves. Journal Anim Sci., no. 69, pp. 4538–4544. DOI: 10.2527/1991.69114538x
 Brambilla, G.F., Agrimi, U., Pierdominici, E. (1991). Clenbuterol residues in vitreous humor and urine of calves. Ital Journal Food Sci., no. 4, pp. 303–306.
 Dursch, I., Meyer, H.H., Karg, H. (1995). Accumulation of the beta-agonist clenbuterol by pigmented tissues in rat eye and hair of veal calves. Journal Anim Sci., no. 73, pp. 2050–2053. DOI: 10.2527/1995.7372050x
 Rusman, H., Gerelt, B., Yamamoto, S., Nishiumi, T., Suzuki, A. (2007). Combined Effects of High Pressure and Heat on Shear Value and Histological Characteristics of Bovine Skeletal Muscle. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, no. 20, pp. 994–1001. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2007.994
 Nishimura, T., Fang, S., Ito, T., Wakamatsu, J.-I., Takahashi, K. (2008). Structural weakening of intramuscular connective tissue during postmortem aging of pork. Animal Science Journal, no. 79, pp. 716–721. DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-0929.2008.00585.x
 Ichinoseki, S., Nishiumi, T., Suzuki, A. (2006). Tenderizing Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Bovine Intramuscular Connective Tissue. Journal of Food Science, no. 71, pp. E276–E281. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00083.x
 Li, C., Zhou, G.H., Xu, X.-L. (2007). Changes of meat quality characteristics and intramuscular connective tissue of beef semitendinosus muscle during postmortem aging for Chinese Yellow bulls. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, vol. 43, pp. 838–845. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01524.x
 Cordova, F., Burns, L., Ramos, A. et al. (2019). Evaluation of muscle tissue and liver glycogen of cattle submitted to transport over long distances and subjected to emergency slaughter. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, no. 71, pp. 1067–1075. DOI: 10.1590/1678-4162-10233
 Donnik, I.M., Shkuratova, I.A., Krivonogova, A.S., Isaeva, A.G., Andreiko, A.A., Khasina, E.I. (2011). Environmental aspects of livestock in the industrial regions. Journal of veterinary Kuban, no. 6, pp. 6--8.
 Zuckerman, H., Bowker, B., Eastridge, J., Solomon, M. (2013). Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing. Meat science, no. 95, pp. 603–607. DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.05.041
 Suleymanov, A.V. Grebenshchikov, Michajlov, E.V. (2007). Methods morphological studies: guidelines. Voronezh: FGU ``The Voronezh CSTI''.
 Soskova, N.A., Antipova, L.V. (2007). Technological maintenance of biological safety of food of animal origin. Voronezh: FGU ``The Voronezh CSTI''.