Existential Neuropsychology: A Science of Making Values
In neurorehabilitation and restoration of motor functions, there are Vygotsky–Luria’s line and Leontiev–Zaporozhets’ line that are obviously connected, but their connection isn’t articulated enough. Their point of convergence dates back to mid 1940s, but since then the development of the two lines was largely parallel. And the missing link is Nikolay Bernshtein’s non-classical biology of purposeful activity. Both lines are intrinsically based on his predictive explanatory framework, with the central role of task set in movement construction, which, in turn, determines the hierarchy of levels where backward reafference (‘sensory corrections’) takes place. Current neurorehabilitation disregards the Bernsteinian idea of the central role of values and meanings in the recovery of movements, which opposes neurorehabilitation as training, or instruction, to neurorehabilitation as guidance, the latter relevant to Leontiev’s ‘personal meaning’ problem. Neurorehabilitation as guidance is generation of the personal meaning, or ‘making values’, allowing to overcome bounds perceived as insuperable, the idea that brings it together with existential psychology and existential psychotherapy.
Keywords: rehabilitation, task set, value, image of the desired future, physiology of activity, existential neuropsychology, personal meaning
 Asmolov, A. G. (2002). Polyphony of A. R. Luria’s personality and the Hamburg score in psychology 02’4. Voprosi psikhologii, vol. 4, pp. 21–24. (In Russian, abstract in English.)
 Kaptelinin, V. and Nardi, B. A. (2006). Acting with Technology: Activity Theory and Interaction Design. MIT Press.
 Gardner, H. (1985). The Mind’s New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution. New York, NY: Basic Books.
 Luria, A. R. (1932). The Nature of Human Conflicts – Or Emotion, Conflict, and Will: An Objective Study of Disorganisation and Control of Human Behaviour. New York, NY: Liveright Publishers.
 Luria, A. R. (1968). The Mind of a Mnemonist: A Little Book About A Vast Memory. Harvard University Press.
 Luria, A. R. (1987). The Man with a Shattered World: The History of a Brain Wound. Harvard University Press.
 Galperin, P. Y. and Ginevskaya, T. O. (1947). On the dependence of the range of movements on the psychological nature of the task. Moscow State University Transactions, vol. 2, no. 111, pp. 75–79. (In Russian.)
 Tsvetkova, L. S. (1980). Audio-visual methods in aphasics rehabilitation. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 242–243.
 Leontiev, A. N. and Zaporozhets, A. V. (1945). Rehabilitation of Movements. A Study into the Rehabilitation of Hand Movements After the War Injury. M.: Sovetskaya Nauka. (In Russian.)
 Luria, A. R. and Leontiev, A. N. (1947). Psychophysiological ways of rehabilitation of functions after a war injury. Moscow University Bulletin. Psychology. Issues of rehabilitation of psychophysiological functions, vol. 111, pp. 17–31. M.: Moscow University Press. (In Russian).
 Bernstein, N. A. (1967). The Co-ordination and Regulation of Movements. London: Pergamon Press.
 Bernstein, N. A. (1996). On the construction of movements, in M. L. Latash and M. Turvey (eds.) On Dexterity and Its Development, pp. 3–244. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
 Profeta, V. L. S. and Turvey, M. T. (2018). Bernstein’s levels of movement construction: A contemporary perspective. Human Movement Science, vol. 57, pp. 111–133.
 Velichkovsky, B. M. (2002). Heterarchy of cognition: The depths and the highs of a framework for memory research. Memory, vol. 10, nos. 5–6, pp. 405–419.
 Falikman, M. V. and Asmolov, A. G. (2017). Cognitive psychology of activity: Attention as a constructive process. Revue internationale du CRIRES: Innover dans la tradition de Vygotsky, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 54–62.
 Asmolov, A. G. and Marilova, T. Y. (1985). The role of social position in the reconstruction of motivation and values in oncology patients. S.S. Korsakov Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 12, pp. 1846–1851. (In Russian.)
 Asmolov, A. G., Shamansurova, K. E., and Zikiyarkhodzhaev, A. D. (2014). From the significant other – to the significant self: cultural practices of overcoming the existential crisis in oncology patients. Abstracts of the 6