The Development of a Natural, Antiseptic Liquid Bath Soap from Apple Rose Leaves


The coronavirus has a high transmission capacity through direct physical contact between humans and objects. It is necessary to use disinfectants, to break the transmission chain. This study aimed to make liquid bath soap with apple rose leaves and evaluate its antiseptic properties. The active ingredient used is a water fraction of 0.78% w/v. The results of the pharmaceutical evaluation showed that liquid soap made from apple rose leaves is homogeneous and has no coarse granules, has a pH of 8, viscosity of 498 mPas, level of free alkaline of 0.7%, specific gravity of 1.03 g / mL and height of foam being 85.71%. The apple rose leaves bath soap can inhibit the growth of S.aureus and E. coli bacteria after 15 and 75 seconds of contact time, respectively. Apple rose leaves have the potential to be developed into a natural antiseptic bath soap.

Keywords: corona virus, liquid bath soap, apple rose leaves, antiseptic activity

[1] Li F. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Coronavirus Spike Proteins. Annu Rev Virol. 2016 Sep;3(1):237–61.

[2] H. Liang, L. Zheng, H. Xia, and J. Tang, “SARS-CoV-2 infection in China-Before the pandemic.,” PLoS neglected tropical diseases. vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1–20, 2020

[3] Rundle CW, Presley CL, Militello M, Barber C, Powell DL, Jacob SE, et al. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020.

[4] Rundle CW, Hu S, Presley CL, Dunnick CA. Triclosen and Its Alternatives in Antibacterial Soaps. Dermatitis. 2019 Nov/Dec;30(6):352–7.

[5] Monisha P, Shabna E, Subhashri SH, Sridevi R, Kavimani S, European J. Biomed. Pharm Sci. 2018;5:271.

[6] Nguyen TT, Woo HJ, Kang HK, Nguyen VD, Kim YM, Kim DW, et al. Flavonoidmediated inhibition of SARS coronavirus 3C-like protease expressed in Pichia pastoris. Biotechnol Lett. 2012 May;34(5):831–8.

[7] Xu Z, Liu X, Niu Y, Shen C, Heminger K, Moulton L, et al. Skin benefits of moisturising body wash formulas for children with atopic dermatitis: A randomised controlled clinical study in China. Australas J Dermatol. 2020 Feb;61(1):54–9.

[8] Potluri A, Shaheda SK, Rallapally N, Durrivel S, Harish G. Res J Top Cosmet Sci. 2013;4:5.

[9] Chen Y, Bruning E, Rubino J, Eder SE. Role of female intimate hygiene in vulvovaginal health: global hygiene practices and product usage. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2017 Dec;13(3):58–67.

[10] Dewan Standardisasi Nasional. Standar Nasional Indonesia. Jakarta: Tentang Sabun Mandi Cair; 1996.

[11] Williamson DA, Carter GP, Howden BP. Current and Emerging Topical Antibacterials and Antiseptics: Agents, Action, and Resistance Patterns. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017 Jul;30(3):827–60.

[12] Suwendar, ML, CR. Evaluasi Aktivitas Antibakteri Daun Jambu Air [Eugenia Aqueum (Burm. F) Alston]. Bandung: 2018.

[13] Suwendar S, Fitrianingsih SP, Lestari F, Mardliyani D, Fitriani N. Potensi Aktivitas Antiketombe dari Daun Jambu Air [Eugenia aqueum (Burm. F) Alston]. Jurnal Sains Farmasi & Klinis. 2019;6(3):250.

[14] Choesrina R, Suwendar S, Mulqie L, Mardliyani D. Potensi Aktivitas Antibakteri dari Fraksi Etil Asetat Daun Jambu Air [Eugenia Aqueum (Burn F.) Alston] Terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi Farmasyifa. 2019;2(1):33–9.

[15] Ogawa S, Yazaki Y. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities. Molecules. 2018;23(4):837.

[16] Serpa R, França EJ, Furlaneto-Maia L, Andrade CG, Diniz A, Furlaneto MC. In vitro antifungal activity of the flavonoid baicalein against Candida species. J Med Microbiol. 2012 Dec;61(Pt 12):1704–8.

[17] Zheng Y, Shang J, Yang Y, Liu C, Wan Y, Geng Q, et al. Lysosomal Proteases Are a Determinant of Coronavirus Tropism. J Virol. 2018 Nov;92(24):1504.

[18] Témoin-Fardini S, Servant J, Sellam S. New test method for the evaluation of the preservation efficacy of soaps at very alkaline pH made by saponification. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2017 Oct;39(5):476–85.

[19] Blaak J, Staib P. PH of the Skin. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2018;54:132–42.

[20] Angelova-Fischer I. Irritants and Skin Barrier Function. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2016;49:80–9.