The Reproduction Performance in Domestic Animals Controlled by Genetic Mechanism: A Review
Reproduction in domestic animal is a very complex process. The process starts from gamete formation, release, gamete transport, fertilization, embryo and fetal development until delivery of the offspring by the dam. Reproduction holds the most important role in determining the success of livestock farming, profit or loss. The genetic selection of the reproductive traits became an important program to find out the merit candidate dam and bulls. At early time, the selection for reproduction traits was based on the visually phenotypic performance, and this is maintained for long time until present time. In the next phase, the values of heritability for reproduction traits was chosen as a basis of selection. The molecular aspect used for reproductive mechanism and expression was noted beginning in the 2000s using Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP). The newest technique is to explore not only the role of DNA in the programming the reproductive mechanism, but the the expression of gen (nucleic DNA) at the Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) at the outside level of the cell nucleus.
Keywords: genetic factor, genetic material, SNP, reproduction process
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