Bio-Conversion and Decomposing With Black Soldier Fly to Promote Plant Growth


Every country in the world, including Indonesia, is confronted with the problem of waste and is attempting to find viable solutions. The majority of recycled waste is inorganic waste, while there is also organic recycled waste, and the remaining 60-75%of waste is dumped in a landfill. By utilizing waste and by-products, bioconversion with black soldier fly (BSF) larvae could be a solution to help overcome the problem of organic waste; these larvae can also be used as a protein source in animal feed and in organic fertilizers rich in nutrients. The use of BSF as a decomposer of organic waste, specifically Black Soldier Fly Fertilizer (BSF Frass), and the liquid resulting from the bioconversion process, called micro biostimulant (MBS), can be used to promote plant growth. The goal of this study was to assess how BSF Frass affected plant growth when compared to Synthetic fertilizers. Corn and Pak Choi were the test plants that were planted in the field. The results showed that giving 50% BSF Frass to the tested plants resulted in better growth and development than the control.

Keywords: Bioconversion, Organic Fertilizer, Black Soldier Fly Compost, Frass.

[1] Adin Yéton, B. G., Aliou, S., Noël, O., Guillaume Lucien, A., Attanda Mouinou, I., Victor Attuquaye, C., Christophe Achille Armand Mahussi, C., Marc, K., & Guy Apollinaire, M. (2019). Decomposition and nutrient release pattern of agro-processing by-products biodegraded by fly larvae in Acrisols. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 65(11), 1610–1621.

[2] Agustiyani, D., Agandi, R., Arinafril, Nugroho, A. A., & Antonius, S. (2021). The effect of application of compost and frass from Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) on growth of Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.). IOP Conference Series:Earth and Environmental Science, 762(1), 012036. 1315/762/1/012036

[3] Anyega, A. O., Korir, N. K., Beesigamukama, D., Changeh, G. J., Nkoba, K., Subramanian, S., van Loon, J. J. A., Dicke, M., & Tanga, C. M. (2021). Black Soldier Fly-Composted Organic Fertilizer Enhances Growth, Yield, and Nutrient Quality of Three Key Vegetable Crops in Sub-Saharan Africa. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12.

[4] Beesigamukama, D., Mochoge, B., Korir, N. K., Fiaboe, K. K. M., Nakimbugwe, D., Khamis, F. M., Subramanian, S., Dubois, T., Musyoka, M. W., Ekesi, S., Kelemu, S., & Tanga, C. M. (2020). Exploring Black Soldier Fly Frass as Novel Fertilizer for Improved Growth, Yield, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Maize Under Field Conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 1447.

[5] Beesigamukama, D., Mochoge, B., Korir, N. K., M Fiaboe, K. K., Nakimbugwe, D., Khamis, F. M., Subramanian, S., Dubois, T., Musyoka, M. W., Ekesi, S., Kelemu, S., Tanga, C. M., Stangoulis, J., Carranca, C., John Milner, M., & Kkm, F. (2020). Exploring Black Soldier Fly Frass as Novel Fertilizer for Improved Growth, Yield, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Maize Under Field Conditions. Article, 11, 1.

[6] Biswas, J. C., Ladha, J. K., & Dazzo, F. B. (1996). Rhizobia Inoculation Improves Nutrient Uptake and Growth of Lowland Rice; Rhizobia Inoculation Improves Nutrient Uptake and Growth of Lowland Rice. Biswas.

[7] Diener, S., Studt Solano, N. M., Roa Gutiérrez, F., Zurbrügg, C., & Tockner, K. (2011). Biological treatment of municipal organic waste using black soldier fly larvae. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 2(4), 357–363.

[8] Fikrina, R., Purwanto, & Mujiono. (2019). Tampilan APLIKASI PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR) UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL TANAMAN SELADA (Lactuca sativa L.). Jurnal Ilmiah Media Agrosains Vol. 5 No. 1.

[9] Gomes, D. G., Antonio, ;, Radi, J., & Silva De Aquino, G. (n.d.). Growth-promoting bacteria change the development of aerial part and root system of canola Bactérias promotoras de crescimento alteram o desenvolvimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular da canola. 6, 2375–2384. 0359.2018v39n6p2375

[10] Hindersah, R., Kamaludin, N. N., Samanta, S., Banerjee, S., & Sarkar, S. (2020, December 16). Role and perspective of Azotobacter in crops production | Hindersah | SAINS TANAH - Journal of Soil Science and Agroclimatology.

[11] Hodge, A., Robinson, D., & Fitter, A. (2000). Are microorganisms more effective than plants at competing for nitrogen? Trends in Plant Science, 5(7), 304–308.

[12] Kagata, H., & Ohgushi, T. (2012). Positive and negative impacts of insect frass quality on soil nitrogen availability and plant growth. Population Ecology, 54(1), 75–82.

[13] Khamis, F. M., Ombura, F. L. O., Akutse, K. S., Subramanian, S., Mohamed, S. A., Fiaboe, K. K. M., Saijuntha, W., Van Loon, J. J. A., Dicke, M., Dubois, T., Ekesi, S., & Tanga, C. M. (2020). Insights in the Global Genetics and Gut Microbiome of Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens: Implications for Animal Feed Safety Control. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11.

[14] Lalander, C. H., Fidjeland, J., Diener, S., Eriksson, S., & Vinnerås, B. (2015). High waste-to-biomass conversion and efficient Salmonella spp. reduction using black soldier fly for waste recycling. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 35(1), 261– 271.

[15] Oonincx, D. G. A. B., van Huis, A., & van Loon, J. J. A. (2015). Nutrient utilisation by black soldier flies fed with chicken, pig, or cow manure. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 1(2), 131–139.

[16] Ribaut, J.-M., & Ragot, M. (2007). Marker-assisted selection to improve drought adaptation in maize: the backcross approach, perspectives, limitations, and alternatives. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58(2), 351–360.

[17] Shumo, M., Osuga, I. M., Khamis, F. M., Tanga, C. M., Fiaboe, K. K. M., Subramanian, S., Ekesi, S., van Huis, A., & Borgemeister, C. (2019). The nutritive value of black soldier fly larvae reared on common organic waste streams in Kenya. Scientific Reports, 9(1).

[18] Suhartono, F., & Thena W, M. (2021). Enzyme Activitties of Black Soldier (Hermeria illucens) Larvae.

[19] Tanga, C. M., Waweru, J. W., Tola, Y. H., Onyoni, A. A., Khamis, F. M., Ekesi, S., & Paredes, J. C. (2021). Organic Waste Substrates Induce Important Shifts in Gut Microbiota of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens L.): Coexistence of Conserved, Variable, and Potential Pathogenic Microbes. Frontiers in Microbiology, 12.

[20] Uçkun Kiran, E., Trzcinski, A. P., Ng, W. J., & Liu, Y. (2014). Bioconversion of food waste to energy: A review. Fuel, 134, 389–399.

[21] Van Huis, A. (2013). Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annual Review of Entomology, 58, 563–583.