Influence of PGPR, Bio-Phosphate Microorganism and Phosphate on Growth of Oil Palm Seedlings Under Drought Stress Conditions


Drought is a major abiotic stress that threatens the production of agricultural oil palms. Drought interferes with plant uptake of phosphorus. The goal of this study was to investigate how plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), bio-phosphate microorganisms, and phosphate affected oil palm growth under drought stress. The study was conducted at the Tri Dharma Research Station INSTIPER in Yogyakarta from January to May 2020, and it used a factorial and completely randomized design with two factors and three replicates per treatment. The first factor was a fertilization treatment that included P1 (PGPR), P2 (bio-phosphate microorganisms), P3 (phosphate). The second factor was a drinking interval of L1 (once per day) and L2 (once per seven days). At 120 days after planting, data were collected. The results showed that the PGPR, bio-phosphate microorganisms and phosphate had no significant effect on plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, chlorophyll content, dry weight of plants, volume of root, dry weight of root and shoot, stem diameter, number of stomata, and root-shoot ratio. Root volume, root dry weight, and root-shoot ratio were significantly affected by one-day and seven-day watering intervals. Phosphate fertilization with watering once every seven days considerably increased the width of the stomata openingsI

Keywords: PGPR, Bio-Phosphate, Phosphate, Oil Palm, Drought

[1] Wang L, Lee M, Ye B, Yue GH. Genes, pathways and networks responding to drought stress in oil palm roots. Scientific Reports. 2020;10(1):1–13.

[2] Kenneth OC, Nwadibe EC, Kalu AU, Unah UV. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): A novel agent for sustainable food production. American Journal of Agricultural & Biological Sciences. 2019;14(1):35–54.

[3] Zakry FAA, Shamsuddin ZH, Khairuddin AR, Zin ZZ, Anuar AR. Inoculation of Bacillus sphaericus UPMB-10 to young oil palm and measurement of its uptake of fixed nitrogen using the 15n isotope dilution technique. Microbes Environments. 2012;27(3):257–262.

[4] Jochum MD, McWilliams KL, Borrego EJ, Kolomiets MV, Niu G, Pierson EA, Jo YK. Bioprospecting plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that mitigate drought stress in grasses. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2019;10(Sep):1–9.

[5] Yafizham, Abubakar M. Effect of bio-phosphate on increasing the phosphorus availability, the growth and the yield of lowland rice in ultisol. Journal of Tropical Soils.2010;15 : 133–138.

[6] Zhu Y, Wang Z, Wang J, Wang Z, Zhou J. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improve shoot morphology and photosynthesis in dryland spring wheat. WIT Transactions on Built Environment. 2014;145(Dec):343–350.

[7] Backer R, Rokem JS, Ilangumaran G et al. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: Context, mechanisms of action, and roadmap to commercialization of biostimulants for sustainable agriculture. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2018;871(Oct):1–17.

[8] Khajeeyan R, Salehi A, Dehnavi MM, Farajee H, Kohanmoo MA. Growth parameters, water productivity and aloin content of aloe vera affected by mycorrhiza and PGPR application under different irrigation regimes. South African Journal of Botany. 2021.

[9] Cha-um S, Yamada N, Takabe T, Kirdmanee C. Physiological features and growth characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis jacq.) in response to reduced water-deficit and rewatering. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2013;7(3):432–439.

[10] Yang J, Liang T, Liu L, Pan T, Zou Z. Stomatal opening and growth in tomato seedlings treated with different proportions of red and blue light. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 2019;99(5):688–700.