Utilization of Soapberry as a Natural Surfactant in Cashew Nut Shell Liquid Bioinsecticide Formulation in Soybean Pest Management


The demand for soybean has been steadily increasing year after year. Pests are one of the most significant barriers to increasing soybean production. The goal of this study was to determine what concentration of soapberry fruit extract to use as an adjunctive ingredient in cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) formulations to obtain the best pest control effect and soybean growth and yield. This study used a randomized complete block design with a single factor: soapberry extract concentration. The research included four treatments: application of CNSL formulations containing 4%, 3%, 2%, and 0% soapberry extract, application of CNSL formulations containing 1 g/liter detergent, synthetic pesticides (Fastac 1-2 liters/ha), and no pesticides as a control. Insecticide applications were effective against grasshopper and pod-sucking bugs in soybean cultivation; the CNSL with 3%, 4% soapberry and the CNSL with detergent had effectiveness comparable to the synthetic insecticides. Soybean growth was unaffected by any of the CNSL formulations or synthetic insecticide applications. However, using a CNSL formulation with 4% soapberry increased soybean yield as much as using a synthetic insecticide; it did not differ significantly from using a CNSL formulation with detergent. The soybean yield was highest in the CNSL formulation with detergent.

Keywords: Keywords: soybean, soapberry, CNSL, pest

[1] Karina A, Prasetyo OR, Khasanah IN. Analysis of maize and soybean productivity in Indonesia (The result of crop cutting survey). Jakarta: BPS- Statistics Indonesia, 2021; p. 110.

[2] Adisarwanto T. Increase the yield of soybeans in tidal dry fields. Jakarta: Swadaya Publisher; 2005.

[3] Rukmana R, Yuniarsih Y. Soybean cultivation and post harvest. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2008; p. 92.

[4] Riniarsi D. Agricultural commodity outlook food crops sub-sector-soybean. Jakarta: Data center and agricultural information systems ministry of agriculture, 2015; p. 73.

[5] Fattah A, Djamaluddin I, Ilyas A et al. Symptoms of damage to soybean varieties due to major pest attacks in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. in book: Legumes [Working Title]. IntechOpen Publisher, 2021; pp:1-17. DOI:10.5772/intechopen.101263

[6] Cahyono B. Cashew, farming technique and farmer business analysis. Yogyakarta: Swadaya Publisher, 2001; p. 118.

[7] Kardinan A. Botanical pesticides. Jakarta: Swadaya Publisher, 2001; p. 88.

[8] Kastono D. Response of growth and yield of black soy to the use of organic fertilizers and biopesticides of siamese weed (Chromolaena odorata). Yogyakarta: Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, 2005; pp.103-116,. Available from: http://agrisci.ugm.ac.id/vol12_2/3.103116

[9] Sudargo T, Doeljachman D, Supardi S. Poisoning level and behavior of farmers in using pesticides in Brebes Regency. Periodic Postgraduate Research of Gadjah Mada University, 1998; 9(IC):11-22.

[10] Novizan N. Making and utilizing environmentally friendly pesticides. Tangerang: Agromedia Publisher, 2002; p. 94.

[11] Iskandar M. Prospect of CNSL (cashew nut shell liquid) as raw material for the botanical insecticide industry. Technological Development of Spice and Medicinal Plants, 2002;14(2): 35-42

[12] Ramadika R, Ana R, Tarmidi T, Hernaman I. The effect of various levels of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on the mortality of Tribolium castaneum in rice bran. Ziraa’ah, 2019; 44(3): 285-290.

[13] Astriani D, Dinarto W, Mildaryani W. Study of cashew nut shell liquid formulation (CNSL) as botanical pesticide for treatment of corn seeds against mortality of Sitophilus spp. Proc. Rural Resource Development and Sustainable Local Wisdom III. Yogyakarta: Yogyakarta Mercu Buana University, 2010; pp.109-116.

[14] Cahyono B. Soybean. Semarang: CV Aneka Ilmu, 2007; p. 40.

[15] Untung K. Introduction to integrated pest management. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press, 1993; p. 272.

[16] Kalshoven LGE. The Pest of Crops in Indonesia,” Revised and Translated by PA van Der Laan. Jakarta: PT Ictiar baru-Van Hoeve, 1981; p. 701.

[17] Ismunadji M, Karama AS, Soedjitno J et al. Picture guidance for identifying pests and soybean diseases in Indonesia. Bogor: Food Crop Research and Development Center; 1990.

[18] Simpen IN. Isolation of cashew nut shell liquid from cashew nut shell (Anacardium occidentale L.) and study of some physico-chemical characteristic. Chemistry Journal, 2008; 2:71-76.

[19] Towaha J, Ahmadi NR. Utilization of cashew nut shell liquid as a natural phenol source in industry. Journal of Industrial and Beverage Crops, 2011; 2(2):187-198.

[20] Wina E, Muetzel S, Hoffmann EM, Makkar HPS, Becker K. Saponin containing methanol extract of Sapindus rarak affect microbial fermentation, microbial activity and microbial community structure in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2005; 121:59-174.

[21] DEVE committee. The use of pesticides in developing countries and their impact on health and the right to food. Brussels: Policy Department for External Relations Directorate General for External Policies of the Union., 2021; p. 56.

[22] Sreenivasulu A. Studies on bioecology and management of pod sucking bug complex in arid legumes [Masters thesis]. Hyderabad: Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College; 2010 [cited 2018 Oct 2]. Available from: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/bitstream/