Psychosocial Development of Children Addicted Versus Not Addicted to Smartphones


Psychosocial development of preschool children is the process of children’s abilities developing and children starting to take the initiative to solve their own problems according to their knowledge. However, many preschool children are currently addicted to gadgets such as smartphones, which can interfere with their taking initiative and paying attention to the social environment. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in psychosocial development between children who are addicted vs. those who are not addicted to smartphones in preschool age children. This study was a descriptive comparative study and it used a simple random sampling technique to select the respondents. The Mann-Whitney test was employed to analyze the data with a significance degree of 0.05 (5%). The results showed that there was a significant difference between addicted and non-addicted children. In the non-addicted group of children, the median value was 2.00 (1.61-1.78) and in the addicted group of children the median value obtained was 1.00 (1.03-1.11). The average ranking for the non-addicted group was 52.50 and was 28.50 for the addicted group. It is recommended that parents understand the impact of using gadgets such as smartphones on children’s psychosocial development, and that parents pay more attention to each phase of children’s development, especially psychosocial development at preschool age.

Keywords: gadget addiction, preschool children, psychosocial development

[1] Li B, Piachaud D. Technological innovations and social development in Asia. Journal Asian Public Policy. 2019;12(1). Doi: 10.1080/17516234.2018.1546419

[2] Ra S, Shrestha U, Khatiwada S, Yoon SW, Kwon K. The rise of technology and impact on skills. International Journal of Training Research. 2019;17(Sup. 1):26–40. Doi: 10.1080/14480220.2019.1629727

[3] Radesky JS, Weeks HM, Ball R, et al. Young children’s use of smartphones and tablets. Pediatrics. 2020;146(1). Doi:10.1542/peds.2019-3518

[4] Delima R, Arianti NK, Pramudyawardani B. Identifikasi kebutuhan pengguna untuk aplikasi permainan edukasi bagi anak usia 4 sampai 6 tahun. Jurnal Teknologi Informasi dan Sistem Informasi. 2015;1(1).

[5] Ihm J. Social implications of children’s smartphone addiction: The role of support networks and social engagement. Journal of behavioral addictions. 2018;7(2):473– 81. Doi: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.48

[6] Suhana M. Influence of gadget usage on children’s social-emotional development. In International Conference of Early Childhood Education (ICECE 2017). 2017;169. Doi: 10.2991/icece-17.2018.58

[7] Brauner CB, Stephens CB. Estimating the prevalence of early childhood serious emotional/behavioral disorders: Challenges and recommendations. Public health reports. 2006;121(3):303–10. Doi: 10.1177/003335490612100314

[8] Aldayel AS, Aldayel AA, Almutairi AM, Alhussain HA, Alwehaibi SA, Almutairi TA. Parental knowledge of children’s developmental milestones in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. International Journal Pediatrics. 2020. Doi: 10.1155/2020/8889912

[9] Orenstein GA, Lewis L. Eriksons stages of psychosocial development. StatPearls [Internet]; 2020.

[10] Korotaeva EV, Svyattseva AV. Initiative development in preschool children. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2016;233:280–6. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.127

[11] Keumala M, Yoestara M, Putri Z. The Impacts of gadget and internet on the implementation of character education on early childhood. Paper presented at: The International Conference on the Roles of Parents in Shaping Children’s Characters; 2018; Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

[12] Kiadarbandsari A, Madon Z, Hamsan HH, Nouri KM. Role of parenting style and parents’ education in positive youth development of adolescents. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities. 2016;24(4).

[13] Davis-Kean PE. The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-). 2005;19(2):294–304. Doi: 10.1037/0893- 3200.19.2.294

[14] Schlechter M, Milevsky A. Parental level of education: Associations with psychological well?being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescence Educational Psychology. 2010;30(1). Doi: 10.1080/01443410903326084

[15] Haderlie K. The impact of parents’ past experiences on parenting styles and practices in organized youth sport. Paper presented at: Utah Conference on Undergraduate Research; 2014; Utah State University; United States.

[16] Feng N. The effect of sibling size on children’s educational attainment: Evidence from Indonesia. ECNU Review of Education. 2020. Doi: 10.1177/2096531120921703

[17] Black S, Devereux P, Salvanes K. The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children’s education. London School of Economics; 2005.