The Possibility of Using Endophytic Micromycetes for Increasing Plant Metal Resistance


The aim of this research was to study the effect of inoculation with the Cylindrocarpon magnusianum endotrophic micromycete on the physiological and biochemical parameters of tomato test plants under the action of heavy metal salts. The plants were inoculated with the fungus culture (control population) and populations of this fungus preliminarily adapted to the action of the stress factor. Then, inoculated plants were grown under control conditions and on substrates with different concentrations of heavy metal salts (zinc, copper, lead and chromium). After the plants were inoculated with the control population of the C. magnusianum fungus, a stimulating effect increasing the plants’ resistance to the action of the heavy metal salts was not detected. When the plants were inoculated with adapted populations of the C. magnusianum fungus, adaptive reactions of the plants associated with the content of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves and the formation of plant biomass were significantly manifested. Under these conditions, a more intense development of fungal infection in plant roots was observed in contrast to the use of the control fungal population. These findings therefore demonstrated an effective partnership between the C. magnusianum fungus and the root system of plants under extreme conditions for plant life.

Keywords: Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, micromycetes, heavy metals, inoculation, biochemical indicators

[1] Yurkov AP, Kryukov AA, Gorbunova AO et al. Molecular genetic identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi. Ecological Genetics. 2018; 16(2):11–23. doi: 10.17816 / ecogen16211-23 (Ru).

[2] Ijdo M, Cranenbrouck S, Declerck S. Methods for large-scale production of AM fungi: Past, present and future. Mycorrhiza. 2011;21:1–16. doi: 10.12691/ijebb-4-1-1

[3] Rodriguez RJ, White JF, Arnold AE, Redman RS. Fungal endophytes: Diversity and functional roles. New Phytologist. 2009;182:314–330. doi:10.1111/j.1469- 8137.2009.02773.x.

[4] El-Samad HM, El-Hakeem KNS. Strategy role of mycorrhiza inoculation on osmotic pressure, chemical constituents and growth yield of maize plant gown under drought stress. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2019;10(6):1102−1120. DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.106080

[5] Ikram M, Ali IN, Jan G et al. IAA producing fungal endophyte Penicillium roqueforti Thom., enhances stress tolerance and nutrients uptake in wheat plants grown on heavy metal contaminated soils. Plos One. 2018;29:2-22.

[6] Bilal S, Shahzad R, Khan AL, Al-Harrasi A, Kim CK, Lee I.-J. Phytohormones enabled endophytic Penicillium funiculosum LHL06 protects Glycine max L. from synergistic toxicity of heavy metals by hormonal and stress-responsive proteins modulation. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2019;379:120824.

[7] Dabral S, Varma YA, Choudhary DK, Bahuguna RN, Nath M. Biopriming with Piriformospora indica ameliorates cadmium stress in rice by lowering oxidative stress and cell death in root cells. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2019;186:1-12.

[8] Ali A, Bilal S, Khan AL, Mabood F, Al-Harrasi A, Lee I.-J. Endophytic Aureobasidium pullulans BSS6 assisted developments in phytoremediation potentials of Cucumis sativus under Cd and Pb stress. Journal of Plant Interactions. 2019;14(1):303–313.

[9] Bilal S, Shahzad R, Imran M, Jan R, Min K, Lee I.-J. Synergistic association of endophytic fungi enhances Glycine max L. resilience to combined abiotic stresses: Heavy metals, high temperature and drought stress. Industrial Crops & Products. 2020;143:1-10.

[10] Li X, Zhang X, Wang X, Yang X, Cui Z. (2019). Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation of lead and salinity co-contaminated soil by Suaeda salsa and Trichoderma asperellum. Chemosphere. 2019;224:716-725.

[11] Sharma VK, Li X, Wu G, Bai W, Parmar S, White Jr JF, Li H. Endophytic community of Pb-Zn hyperaccumulator Arabis alpina and its role in host plants metal tolerance. Plant Soil. 2019;437:397–411.

[12] Hou L, Yu J, Zhao L, He X. Dark septate endophytes improve the growth and the tolerance of Medicago sativa and Ammopiptanthus mongolicus under cadmium stress. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2020;10:1-17. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.03061

[13] Sogonov MV, Velikanov LL. Soilmicrofungi from alpine and subnival ecosystems of the Northwestern Caucasus. Mikologiya I Fitopatologiya. 2004;38(3):50-58.

[14] Boyette CD, Hoagland RE, Stetina KC. Efficacy improvement of a bioherbicidal fungus using a formulation-based approach. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2016;7(16):2349−2358. DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.716206

[15] Boyette CD, Hoagland RE, Stetina KC. Hot water treatment enhances the bioherbicidal efficacy of a fungus. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2018;9(10):2063−2076. DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.910150

[16] Meepagala KM, Clausen BM, Johnson RD, Wedge DE, Duke SO. A phytotoxic and antifungal metabolite (Pyrichalasin h) from a fungus infecting Brachiaria eruciformis (signal grass). Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment. 2019;8(3):115-128. DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2019.83010

[17] Sobowale AA. Probable effects of dual inoculation of maize (Zea mays) stem with Fusarium verticillioides and certain Trichoderma species on fumonisin content of maize seeds. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2019;10(5):752−759. DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.105055

[18] Amaral DR, Oliveira DF, Campos VP, de Carvalho DA, Nunes AS. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyneexigua. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia. 2009;33:1861–1865. doi: 10.1590/S1413-70542010000500021

[19] Bukharina IL, Islamova NA. Study of the stability limits of microscopic fungi and the formation of a collection of promising isolates. Material annual meeting of the society of plant physiologists in Russia ”Plant signaling systems: from the receptor to the body’s response”. MODERN PROBLEMS OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION 2015. 3. 362-363.

[20] Bukharina IL, Islamova NA. Investigation of the metal resistance of isolates of microscopic fungi. Presented at: Experimental Plant Biology: Fundamental and Applied Aspects: Annual Meeting of the Society of Plant Physiologists of Russia; 2017 September 18-24; Sudak, Russia.

[21] Bukharina I, Franken P, Kamasheva A, Vedernikov K, Islamova N. About the species composition of microscopic fungi in soils and woody plant roots in urban environment. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research. 2016;7(4):1386–1394.

[22] Stark OY, Labutova NM. Traditional methods of working with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. SPb: GNU VNIISCHM; 2014.