Gestational diabetes mellitus: Major risk factors and pregnancy-related outcomes: A cohort study


Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major pregnancy endocrine problem that has several confirmed risk factors and is associated with adverse pregnancy-related outcomes (PRO).

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between GDM diagnosis and the associated risk factors of PRO (maternal, intrapartum, perinatal, and neonatal) in accordance with International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed with 531 singleton parturient (265 GDM and 266 non-GDM). They were selected consecutively from referral hospitals, and the maternal, intrapartum, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes were assessed.

Results: The major risk factors influencing the GDM diagnosis were maternal age, obesity, family history of diabetes, previous history of GDM, and previous history of macrosomia. In the comparison of PRO between the groups, significant associations were detected for emergency cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membrane, preterm delivery, and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the GDM group. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a previous history of stillbirth was significantly associated with maternal and perinatal outcomes. The odds ratios (CI 95%) of the PRO in the women with a GDM diagnosis were: maternal = 2.43 (1.51-3.90), intrapartum = 2.05 (1.35- 3.11), perinatal = 2.00 (1.29-3.10), and neonatal = 1.68 (1.08-2.62). The PRO was significantly correlated with GDM diagnosis, but not with the risk factors.

Conclusion: The adverse pregnancy outcomes were significantly correlated with GDM diagnosis, and the outcomes were not directly affected by the risk factors. Given the related adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring, early screening and management of GDM is necessary especially in Asians and in low-/middle-income countries.

Key words: Gestational diabetes mellitus, Pregnancy outcomes, Risk factors.

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