Aromatic amino acids play a harmonizing role in prostate cancer: A metabolomics-based cross-sectional study


Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common health problem worldwide. The rate of this disease is likely to grow by 2021. PCa is a heterogeneous disorder, and various biochemical factors contribute to the development of this disease. The metabolome is the complete set of metabolites in a cell or biological sample and represents the downstream end product of the omics. Hence, to model PCa by computational systems biology, a preliminary metabolomics-based study was used to compare the metabolome profile pattern between healthy and PCa men.

Objective: This study was carried out to highlight energy metabolism modification and assist the prognosis and treatment of disease with unique biomarkers.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional research, 26 men diagnosed with stage-III PCa and 26 healthy men with normal PSA levels were enrolled. Urine was analyzed with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, accompanied by the MetaboAnalyst web-based platform tool for metabolomics data analysis. Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis was applied to clarify the separation between the two groups. Outliers were documented and metabolites determined, followed by identifying biochemical pathways.

Results: Our findings reveal that modifications in aromatic amino acid metabolism and some of their metabolites have a high potential for use as urinary PCa biomarkers. Tryptophan metabolism (p < 0.001), tyrosine metabolism (p < 0.001), phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis (p < 0.001), phenylalanine metabolism (p = 0.01), ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis (p = 0.19), nitrogen metabolism (p = 0.21), and thiamine metabolism (p = 0.41) with Q2 (0.198) and R2 (0.583) were significantly altered.

Conclusion: The discriminated metabolites and their pathways play an essential role in PCa causes and harmony.

Key words: Metabolomics, Prostate cancer, Aromatic amino acids, 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

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