The effect of acrylamide on sperm oxidative stress, total antioxidant levels, tyrosine phosphorylation, and carboxymethyl-lysine expression: A laboratory study
Background: Acrylamide (AA) is a reactive molecule produced during food processing at temperatures above 120°C.
Objective: To evaluate the impact of different concentrations of AA on human sperm parameters, oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity (TAC).
Materials and Methods: In this laboratory study, semen samples were obtained from healthy donors referred to the Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran between June and July 2019. Samples were divided into four groups (n = 10/each): one control and three treatment groups (0.5, 1, and 2 mM of AA). After 2 hr of exposure to AA, the superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were measured based on colorimetric methods. The TAC was determined by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay. Flow cytometry was performed to measure the intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Also, immunohistochemistry was done to determine the effect of AA on tyrosine phosphorylation and carboxymethyl-lysine expression.
Results: Results of the study demonstrated that the motility and viability of spermatozoa were significantly decreased after AA exposure (p < 0.001). This decrease was also seen in the TAC and superoxide dismutase activity as well as in the phosphotyrosine percentage compared with the control (p < 0.01). However, the carboxymethyllysine and prooxidant activity including reactive oxygen species generation and lipid peroxidation level increased (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Overall, the results confirmed the detrimental effect of AA on human spermatozoa which may be due to oxidative stress and decreased total antioxidant levels. AA may reduce fertility by reducing sperm capacitation and motility.
Key words: Acrylamide, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant, Spermatozoa, Infertility.
 Gökmen V. Acrylamide in food: Analysis, content and potential health effects. USA: Academic Press, Elsevier; 2015.
 Matoso V, Bargi-Souza P, Ivanski F, Romano MA, Romano RM. Acrylamide: A review about its toxic effects in the light of Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. Food Chem 2019; 283: 422–430.
 Carere A. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of acrylamide: A critical review. Ann Ist Super Sanita 2006; 42: 144–155.
 Lineback DR, Coughlin JR, Stadler RH. Acrylamide in foods: A review of the science and future considerations. Ann Rev Food Sci Technol 2012; 3: 15–35.
 Camacho L, Latendresse JR, Muskhelishvili L, Patton R, Bowyer JF, Thomas M, et al. Effects of acrylamide exposure on serum hormones, gene expression, cell proliferation, and histopathology in male reproductive tissues of Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol Lett 2012; 211: 135–143.
 Koszucka A, Nowak A, Nowak I, Motyl I. Acrylamide in human diet, its metabolism, toxicity, inactivation and the associated European Union legal regulations in food industry. Crit Rev Food 2020; 60: 1677–1692.
 Sun J, Li M, Zou F, Bai S, Jiang X, Tian L, et al. Protection of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside against acrylamide- and glycidamide-induced reproductive toxicity in Leydig cells. Food Chem Toxicol 2018; 119: 268–274.
 Anvari M, Talebi AR, Mangoli E, Shahedi A, Ghasemi MR, Pourentezari M. Effects of acrylamide in the presence of vitamin E on sperm parameters, chromatin quality, and testosterone levels in mice. Clin Exp Reprod Med 2020; 47: 101–107.
 Ma Y, Shi J, Zheng M, Liu J, Tian S, He X, et al. Toxicological effects of acrylamide on the reproductive system of weaning male rats. Toxicol Indust Health 2011; 27: 617–627.
 Duan X, Wang QC, Chen KL, Zhu CC, Liu J, Sun SC. Acrylamide toxic effects on mouse oocyte quality and fertility in vivo. Sci Rep 2015; 5: 11562– 11573.
 Yilmaz BO, Yildizbayrak N, Aydin Y, Erkan M. Evidence of acrylamide-and glycidamide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in Leydig and Sertoli cells. Hum Exp Toxicol 2017; 36: 1225– 1235.
 Gosalvez J, Tvrda E, Agarwal A. Free radical and superoxide reactivity detection in semen quality assessment: Past, present, and future. J Assist Reprod Genet 2017; 34: 697–707.
 Showell MG, Mackenzie−Proctor R, Brown J, Yazdani A, Stankiewicz MT, Hart RJ. Antioxidants for male subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 12: CD007411.
 Colagar AH, Karimi F, Jorsaraei SG. Correlation of sperm parameters with semen lipid peroxidation and total antioxidants levels in astheno-and oligoasheno-teratospermic men. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013; 15: 780–785.
 Aitken RJ, Muscio L, Whiting S, Connaughton HS, Fraser BA, Nixon B, et al. Analysis of the effects of polyphenols on human spermatozoa reveals unexpected impacts on mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress and DNA integrity; Implications for assisted reproductive technology. Biochem Pharmacol 2016; 121: 78–96.
 Nowicka-Bauer K, Nixon B. Molecular changes induced by oxidative stress that impair human sperm motility. Antioxidants 2020; 9: 134–156.
 Sati L, Cayli S, Delpiano E, Sakkas D, Huszar G. The pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation in human sperm in response to binding to zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid. Reprod Sci 2014; 21: 573–581.
 Nevin C, McNeil L, Ahmed N, Murgatroyd C, Brison D, Carroll M. Investigating the glycating effects of glucose, glyoxal and methylglyoxal on human sperm. Sci Rep 2018; 8: 1–2.
 Cooper TG, Noonan E, Von Eckardstein S, Auger J, Baker HW, Behre HM, et al. World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics. Hum Reprod Update 2010; 16: 231–245.
 Buranaamnuay K. Comparison of different methods for sperm vitality assessment in frozenthawed Holstein bull semen. Thai J Vet Med 2019; 49: 249–255.
 Kermani-Alghoraishi M, Anvari M, Talebi AR, Amini-Rad O, Ghahramani R, Miresmaili SM. The effects of acrylamide on sperm parameters and membrane integrity of epididymal spermatozoa in mice. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010; 153: 52–55.
 Lebda M, Gad S, Gaafar H. Effects of lipoic acid on acrylamide induced testicular damage. Materia Soc Med 2014; 26: 208–226.
 Zhang JX, Yue WB, Ren YS, Zhang CX. Enhanced role of elaidic acid on acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in epididymis and epididymal sperm that contributed to the impairment of spermatogenesis in mice. Toxicol Indust Health 2010; 26: 469–477.
 Omidi Z, Piravar Z, Ramezani M. The effect of acrylamide on mitochondrial membrane potential and glutathione extraction in human spermatozoa a cross sectional study. Int J Reprod BioMed 2020; 18: 855–864.
 Ferramosca A, Provenzano SP, Montagna DD, Coppola L, Zara V. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration. Urology 2013; 82: 78–83.
 Agarwal A, Parekh N, Panner Selvam MK, Henkel R, Shah R, Homa ST, et al. Male oxidative stress infertility (MOSI): Proposed terminology and clinical practice guidelines for management of idiopathic male infertility. World J Men’s Health 2019; 37: 296–312.
 Pourentezari M, Talebi A, Abbasi A, Khalili MA, Mangoli E, Anvari M. Effects of acrylamide on sperm parameters, chromatin quality, and the level of blood testosterone in mice. Iran J Reprod Med 2014; 12: 335–342.
 Said TM, Fischer-Hammadeh C, Hamad M, Refaat K, Hammadeh ME. Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis in male infertility. In: Agarwal A, Aitken RJ, Alvarez JG. Studies on men’s health and fertility. USA: Humana Press; 2012; 433–448.
 Silva JV, Freitas MJ, Correia BR, Korrodi-Gregório L, Patrício A, Pelech S, et al. Profiling signaling proteins in human spermatozoa: Biomarker identification for sperm quality evaluation. Fertil Steril 2015; 104: 845–856.
 Rifai L, Saleh FA. A review on acrylamide in food: Occurrence, toxicity, and mitigation strategies. Int J Toxicol 2020; 39: 93–102.
 Ottum MS, Mistry AM. Advanced glycation end-products: Modifiable environmental factors profoundly mediate insulin resistance. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2015; 57: 1–2.