A case–control study to predict the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus by initial fasting blood sugar or past gestational history


Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) deserves proper prevention, diagnosis, and management due to healthcare implications from both maternal and fetal concerns.

Objective: To evaluate the rate and investigate the risk factors for developing GDM.

Materials and Methods: In this case-control, universal screening for GDM between 24 and 28 wk of gestation was performed in 613 pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic in Tehran who were followed-up until delivery between March 2017 to March 2018. Of the 613 women, 143 had GDM and 470 had normal glucose tolerance test as the primary diagnosis. Some GDM risk factors were compared in two groups.

Results: Impaired glucose tolerance test was detected in 143 (23.3%) patients. Prevalence of GDM was higher in the first-trimester fasting blood sugar (FBS) > 90 qmg/dl group (p < 0.001). Comparison of the GDM and the normal glucose tolerance test groups demonstrated significant differences in maternal age, first-trimester FBS, third-trimester vitamin D level, maternal platelet count, maternal body mass index (BMI) (before 12 wk of gestation), weight gain during pregnancy, and the history of gestational complications in previous pregnancy (p < 0.01). In logistic regression, GDM was independently associated with older maternal age, higher first-trimester FBS, the history of gestational complications in previous pregnancy, lower third-trimester vitamin D level, and higher maternal platelet count (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Both patients with higher initial FBS and the history of gestational complications in previous pregnancy should be considered high risk for GDM and screened earlier.

Key words: Diabetes Mellitus, Gestational, Blood glucose, Risk factor.

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