Semen quality among men attending urology services in the Dschang Health District, west Cameroon: A retrospective study on 379 cases
Background: Infertility is a common condition affecting at least 15% of couples worldwide, and male factors are involved in about half of this prevalence rate. In Cameroon, about 20%-40% of couples are the victims. However, the sperm characteristics of infertile men are yet to be described in the health districts in Cameroon for better management of male infertility.
Objective: The present study was designed to assess the sperm profile and related sociodemographic factors of men attending the urology services at the Dschang Health District. Materials and Methods: It consisted of a 10 yr retrospective study carried out in the Dschang Health District. The results of patients’ semen analysis (SA) were computed using Epi Info software and expressed as qualitative and quantitative spermogram state as described by the clinician and sociodemographic features of those patients.
Results: Out of the 379 patients studied, 83.91% had abnormal spermogram. Patients older than 50 yr were the most affected when grouped into age categories. With regard to patient’s profession, 52.51% had specified their profession and from that group, although farmers (9.31%) represented the lowest size category, they were the most affected with 94.74% having abnormal spermogram.
Conclusion: This study indicates that the sperm damage is the major cause of male infertility in the Dschang Health District. It also shows that farmers are the most affected category and it could be linked to the long-term exposure to pesticides. These results call for the assessment of the reproductive toxicity of locally used pesticides.
Key words: Sperm damage, Male infertility, Semen analysis, Dschang Health District.
 Masoumi SZ, Parsa P, Darvish N, Mokhtari S, Yavangi M, Roshanaei G. An epidemiologic survey on the causes of infertility in patients referred to infertility center in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan. Iran J Reprod Med 2015; 13: 513–516.
 Sikka SC, Hellstrom WJ. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure. Asian J Androl 2016; 18: 392–401.
 Uadia PO, Emokpae AM. Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue requiring attention. Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences 2015; 4: 45–53.
 Belley Priso E, Nguefack CT, Nguemgne C, Njamen TN, Taila W, Banag E. L’infertilité féminine a l’Hôpital Général de Douala : aspects épidémiologiques et radiologiques (à propos de 658 cas). J Afr Imag Méd 2015; 2: 16–23.
 Nana PN, Wandji JC, Fomulu JN, Mbu RE, Leke RJI, Woubinwou MJ. Aspects psycho-sociaux chez patients infertiles à la maternité principale de l’hôpital central de yaoundé, cameroun. Clinics in Mother and Child Health 2011; 8: 1–5.
 Eze UA, Okonof FE. High prevalence of male infertility in Africa: Are mycotoxins to blame? Afr J Reprod Health 2015; 19: 9–17.
 Abell A, Ernst E, Bonde JP. Semen quality and sexual hormones in greenhouse workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 2000; 26: 492–500.
 Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile male: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril 2015; 103: 18–25.
 WHO. WHO Laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen. WHO Press, Switzerland; 2010: 5.
 Belloc S, Hazout A, Zini A, Merviel P, Cabry R, Chahine H, et al. How to overcome male infertility after 40: influence of paternal age on fertility. Maturitas 2014; 78: 22–29.
 Leridon H. Stérilité et hypofertilité : du silence à l’impatience? Population 1991; 46: 225–247.
 Ikechebelu JL, Adinma JL, Orie EF, Ikegwuonu SO. High prevalence of male infertility in southeastern Nigeria. J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 23: 657–659.
 Kirakoya B, Barnabé Z, Karim PA, Aristide KF, Clotaire Y, Amelie N. Epidemiological and clinical profile of male hypofertility in consultation at the urology-andrology of yalgado ouedraogoteaching hospital (burkina faso). Advances in Sexual Medicine 2015; 5: 1–6.
 Moussa D, Soumana A, Amadou SM, Soli I, Tahirou I, Ali A. Profil hormonal chez l’homme en cas d’infertilité au laboratoire de radio immunologie de l’institut des radioisotopes de Niamey. African Journal of Urology 2016; 22: 305–309.
 Sissoko SB. Contribution à l’étude des azoospermies au service de cytogénétique et de la biologie de la reproduction de l’INRSP à propos de 50 cas. Mali: Thèse de médecine; 2008.
 Kaham P. Analyse cytospermiologique à propos de 860 cas. Mali: Thèse médecine Bamako FMPOS du; 2005.
 Ould Hamouda S, Perrin J, Achard V, Courbière B, Grillo JM, Sari-Minodier I. Association between sperm abnormalities and occupational environment among male consulting for couple infertility. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod 2016: 45: 1–10.
 Hafez EM, Issa SY, AI-Mazroua MK, Ibrahim KT, Abdel Rahman SM. The neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid: a male reproductive system toxicity inducer-human and experimental study. Toxicology 2016; 2: 109–117.
 Hamerezaee M, Dehghan SF, Golbabaei F, Fathi A, Barzegar L, Heidarnejad N. Assessment of semen quality among workers exposed to heat stress: a cross-sectional study in a Steel Industry. Saf Health Work 2018; 9: 232–235.
 Hamilton TR, Mendes CM, de Castro LS, de Assis PM, Siqueira AF, Delgado Jde C, et al. Evaluation of lasting effects of heat stress on sperm profile and oxidative status of ram semen and epididymal sperm. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016; 2016: 1687657.