Role of latent female genital tuberculosis in recurrent early pregnancy loss: A retrospective analysis
Background: Latent Female Genital tuberculosis (FGTB) or tubercular infestation is prevalent in Southeast Asia and even the presence of tubercular bacilli in the genital tract is becoming an important factor for reproductive failure. An immature endometrium becomes non-receptive, preventing implantation or rejection of implanted embryo in early months, resulting in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in association with other factors.
Objective: To detect the underlying causes of RPL in addition to the proven causes like uterine cavity defects, thrombophilia, chromosomal abnormalities, etc.
Materials and Methods: 317 women with RPL, enrolled over a period of 60 months (January 2014 to December 2018) conducted at Calcutta Fertility Mission in the present study. They were grouped in A, B, and C and undergone routine tests for the same along with the PCR test with an endometrial aspirate.
Results: Patients with only latent FGTB (Group A), patients with FGTB and associated factors (Group B), and patients with other causes of RPL (other than latent FGTB) (Group C) were34.4%, 42.3%, and 23.3% respectively. About 29.36%, 47.01%, and 21.62%of the patients had achieved pregnancy in Group A, B, and C, respectively. The rate of miscarriage was high in both Groups A and B, affected with latent FGTB, and live-birth was higher (75%) in Group C that did not have tubercular involvement of the genital tract.
Conclusion: The tubercular infestation or latent FGTB as per our study appears to be a very important cause of RPL in patients with recurrent “unexplained” miscarriage. It should be treated adequately at an early stage to prevent permanent damage to pelvic organs and restore reproductive health in women.
Key words: Female genital tuberculosis, Recurrent pregnancy loss, Endometrium, Implantation.
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