Breast density in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients: A case-control study


Background: Epidemiological studies suggested a positive relationship between breast density and risk of breast cancer. One of the common hormonal disorders in women’s reproductive age is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and the results from the studies about the risk of breast cancer among PCOS patients are equivocal.

Objective: The objective was to evaluate the breast density in PCOS patients compared with the control group.

Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the PCOS patients who were older than 40 years and were referred to infertility or gynecology outpatient clinic of Arash women’s hospital between 2015 and 2017 were selected as the case group. Control group was selected from healthy women who attended the same hospital and were older than 40 years. By digital mammography, breast density was classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) of the American College of Radiology and it was graded by one expert radiologist.

Results: Final analysis in 68 cases and controls showed statistically significant differences between breast densities in PCOS patients compared to the control (p = 0.03), and when the analysis was conducted by considering the category of age, the control group who were younger than 45 years had higher breast density compared with PCOS patient. Multivariate logistic regression analyses manifested a statistically significant adverse association between body mass index (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79–0.95), vitamin D intake (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16–0.81), and breast density.

Conclusion: Our data suggested that the PCOS patients had lower breast density compared with normal population. However, in multivariate analysis, considering other confounders, this association was not confirmed.

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