A new look at the theoretical causes of endometriosis: Narrative review


Endometriosis is a major health concern in women who have it. Unfortunately, there is no definitive cure except panhysterectomy with its sequelae including induction of premature menopause due to loss of ovaries. Therefore, revealing the causes of this puzzling disease is necessary to avoid contracting it, and to spare women the health disorders resulting from it and the difficulties of treating it. We aimed to study endometriosis with a focus on its theoretical causes. Its classification reports and theories of pathogenesis were identified and studied from available database searches. The causes of endometriosis remain mysterious. Many theories have been proposed to explain the etiology, but retrograde menstruation (RM) remains the closest in this regard. Although this theory is the most accepted in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, its causes are still a matter of debate, especially in women who do not suffer from obstructions to menstrual outflows, such as cases of congenital cervical stenosis and imperforate hymen. It is suggested in some studies that there may be a relationship between women who engage in sexual activity during menstruation and the development of endometriosis. It is concluded that endometriosis is a painful and debilitating disease. Identifying its causes is essential to control the disease and avoid any burdens on health. RM is the main theory for its pathogenesis but its causes are still uncertain. Sexual activity during menstruation may be a possible cause of RM but needs more evidence. Future studies are recommended to reveal all aspects of the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

Key words: Sexual behavior, Endometrioma, Menstruation, Retrograde, Painful, fertility.

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