Effects of single-dose and co-supplementation of vitamin D and omega-3 on metabolic profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: An RCT


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous medical condition with a cluster of metabolic and endocrine disorders including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenism.

Objective: The present study aimed to determine the effects of single-dose and cosupplementation of vitamin D (vit D) and omega-3 (O3) on anthropometric and several biochemical factors in women with PCOS.

Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 80 PCOS women referred to Shahid Motahhari Clinic, Shiraz, Iran, from April to October 2017 were studied in 4 groups (n = 20/each) for 8 wk. The placebo group received the placebo capsule (paraffin oil); 1 weekly and 2/daily; the vit D group received vit D (50,000 IU/weekly) + 2 placebo capsules daily, O3 group, 2, O3 capsules daily + 1 placebo capsule weekly, and vit D + O3 (50000 IU/weekly vit D + 2, O3 capsules daily). Before and after 8 wk of intervention, height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, homeostasis model of insulin resistance index, and sex hormone binding globulin were compared between groups.

Results: The significant reduction was detected in serum triglyceride (p = 0.002), TC (p = 0.04), fasting blood sugar (p = 0.02), insulin (p = 0.001), and homeostasis model of insulin resistance index (p = 0.001) concentrations in all vit D, O3, and vit D + O3 supplemented groups compared to the placebo group. Furthermore, in comparison with the placebo group, a significant increase was observed in serum sex hormone binding globulin levels after vit D, O3, and vit D + O3 treatments. Nevertheless, no significant changes were observed in serum highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and anthropometric indices in all treated participants.

Conclusion: The current study indicated that single dose and co-supplementation of vit D and O3 for 8 wk was associated with beneficial effects on serum triglyceride, TC, insulin, and sex hormone binding globulin concentrations among women suffering from PCOS.

Key words: Polycystic ovary syndrome, Vitamin D, Omega-3 fatty acid, Insulin, Sex hormone- binding globulin.

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