Effect of resistance training with and without vitamin D calcium chitosan nanoparticle supplements on apoptosis markers in ovariectomized rats: An experimental study


Background: Hormone therapy is one of the most effective treatments for menopausal disorders, but it may increase the risk of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, and pulmonary embolism.

Objective: The present study investigated the effect of resistance training with and without vitamin D calcium (Ca++) chitosan nanoparticles on apoptosis markers in ovariectomized rats.

Materials and Methods: 42 female Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n = 6/each). One group was assigned as the healthy controls to show the induction of menopause. The other 6 groups comprised ovariectomized (OVX) animals including: 1) vitamin D + calcium + chitosan + resistance training, 2) saline + estrogen + resistance training, 3) saline + resistance training, 4) vitamin D + calcium + chitosan, 5) saline + estrogen, and 6) OVX + control. 48 hr after the last intervention, the hippocampus tissue was extracted to measure the BCL-2-associated X (BAX), B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), and caspase-3 gene expression as well as the percentage of dead cells.

Results: OVX rats demonstrated increased BAX gene expression, ratio of BAX gene expression to BCL-2, caspase-3 gene expression, and percentage of dead cells of hippocampal tissue, but decreased BCL-2 gene expression. Resistance training and vitamin D Ca++ chitosan nanoparticle supplements seemed to reverse these changes.

Conclusion: The combination of resistance training and vitamin D Ca++ chitosan nanoparticle supplements may be considered a non-pharmacological treatment for OVX-induced apoptosis.

Key words: Apoptosis, BCL-2-associated X protein, Caspase-3, Estrogen replacement therapy, Hormone replacement therapy.

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