Exploring Bahraini Parents’ Views on Parental Involvement in Primary Education
This article reports on an exploratory study of parental involvement in primary education conducted in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Drawing on a survey of 154 parents across 16 schools, parent views on parental involvement are explored – specifically, beliefs and experiences about parental involvement, and who should be held responsible for ensuring parental involvement. The study finds that the participants viewed all types of parental involvement identified by Epstein (2011) as important, and that it was emphasized by their children’s schools, but had a school-centered view of home–school relations. Furthermore, they identified a range of barriers to parental involvement, with parents’ other responsibilities featuring as the most important. Cultural factors influencing parental involvement within the specific cultural context of Bahrain are discussed.
Education, Parental involvement, Parental engagement, Bahrain, Primary education
 Al-Daihani, S. (2005). Supervisors’ attitudes toward family involvement in Kuwait middle schools [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Blacksburg, Virginia: Virginia Polytechnic and State University.
 Alghazo, Y., & Alghazo, R. (2015). The effect of parental involvement and socioeconomic status on elementary students’ mathematics achievement. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(5), 521–527.
 Al-Ayam Newspaper Online. (2020, May 26). تراجع زواج البحرينيين وارتفاع الطلاق [The decline of Bahraini marriages and the rise of divorce]. https://www.alayam.com/alayam/first/858321/News.html
 Al-Hassan, S. (2020). Parental involvement in education in the Gulf region. In: J. E. Lansford, A. B. Brik, & A. M. Badahdah, Families and social change in the Gulf region (pp. 80–95). London: Routledge.
 Al-Mahdi, O. (2010a). Linking home and school mathematics: A qualitative case study in a Bahraini Primary School. Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
 Al-Mahdi, O. (2010b). A qualitative investigation of home-school relationships and children’s mathematics learning in–and out-of-school in Bahrain. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 8, 427–438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.059
 Al-Mahrooqi, R., Denman, C., & Al-Maamari, F. (2016). Omani parents’ involvement in their children’s English education. SAGE Open 6(1), 1–12.
 Al-Harrasi, S., & Al-Mahrooqi, R. (2014). Investigating Omani parents’ involvement in their children’s schooling. European Journal of Scientific Research, 117(2), 272–286.
 Al-Qaryouti, I. & Kilani, H. (2015). Role of Omani parents: Fostering emergent literacy skills. International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 43(3), 336–348.
 Al-Sumaiti, R. (2012). Parental involvement in the education of their children in Dubai (Policy brief 30). Retrieved from https://khda.gov.ae/CMS/WebParts/TextEditor/Documents/Parental_Involvement_in_the_Education.pdf
 Al-Taneiji, S. (2008). Students’ perceptions of parental involvement in United Arab Emirates Secondary Schools. Journal of Educational & Psychological Sciences, 9(02), 11–29.
 Al-Taneiji, S. (2013). The role of leadership in engaging parents in United Arab Emirate schools. International Education Studies, 6(1), 153–165.
 Al-Watan Newspaper Online. (2020, September 8). وزير التربية: 2% نسبة الأمية في البحرين وهي ضمن الأدنى عالميا [Ministry of Education: 2% of the illiteracy rate in Bahrain is among the lowest in the world]. https://www.alayam.com/online/local/871209/News.html
 Al-Watan Newspaper Online. (2018, November 30). 39% نسبة مشاركة المرأة البحرينية من إجمالي القوى العاملة الوطنية في البحرين [39% of the Bahraini women’s participation rate in the total national workforce in Bahrain].
 Baker, F. S., & Hourani, R. B. (2014). The nature of parental involvement in the city of Abu Dhabi in a context of change. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 7(4), 186–200.
 Baydoun, N. (2015). The perceived effect of parental participation on the academic achievement of female English as a second language Middle School Students in the Persian Gulf region. Marriage & Family Review, 51(1), 22–38.
 Bracke, D., & Corts, D. (2012). Parental involvement and the theory of planned behavior. Education, 133(1), 188–201.
 Daniel, G. (2011). Family-school partnerships: Towards sustainable pedagogical practice. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39(2), 165–176.
 Desforges, C. & Abouchaar, A. (2003). The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achievements and adjustment: A literature review. United Kingdom: Queen's Printer.
 Education and Training Quality Assurance Authority. (2015). Schools reviews handbook. http://www.bqa.gov.bh
 Epstein, J. L. (2011). School, family, and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schools (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview.
 Fan, Q. (2012). Parents’ perceptions and practices in homework: Implications for school, teacher and parent partnerships [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. USA: University of Illinois at Chicago.
 Gonzalez, L. M., Borders, L. D., Hines, E. M., Villalba, J. A., & Henderson, A. (2013). Parental involvement in children's education: Considerations for school counselors working with Latino immigrant families. Professional School Counseling, 16(3), 185–192.
 Goodall, J., & Montgomery, C. (2014). Parental involvement to parental engagement: A continuum. Educational Review, 66(4), 399–410.
 Goodall, J. (2021). Parental engagement and deficit discourses: Absolving the system and solving parents. Educational Review, 73(1), 98–110.
 Haack, M. (2007). Parents’ and teachers’ beliefs about parental involvement in schooling [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska.
 Ihmeideh, F., AlFlasi, M., Al-Maadadi, F., Coughlin, C., & Al-Thani, T. (2018). Perspectives of family–school relationships in Qatar based on Epstein’s model of six types of parent involvement. Early Years, 40(2), 188–204.
 Goodall, J. & Montgomery, C. (2014). Parental involvement to parental engagement: A continuum. Educational Review, 66(4), 399–410.
 Karolak, M. (2010). Preserving Arab culture in the Kingdom of Bahrain. In I. C. Veljanova, (Ed.), Perception, Meaning and Identity (pp. 23–34). The Netherlands: Brill.
 LaRocque, M., Kleiman, I., & Darling, S. M. (2011). Parental involvement: The missing link in school achievement. Preventing School Failure, 55(3), 115–122.
 Midraj, S., & Midraj, J. (2011). Parental involvement and grade four students’ Arabic reading achievement. European Journal of Educational Studies, 3(2), 245–260.
 Moussa-Inaty, J., & De La Vega, E. (2013). From their perspective: Parental involvement in the UAE. International Journal of Sociology of Education, 2(3), 292–312.
 Ridge, N., & Jeon, S. (2020). Father involvement and education in the Middle East: Geography, gender, and generations. Comparative Education Review, 64(4), 725–748.
 UNESCO. (2021). Bahrain. Retrieved from http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/bh