Association Between Smoking and Foot Ulcer among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus, Wad Medani, Sudan


Background: This study aimed to assess the relationship between smoking and diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) among adult diabetic patients presenting to Aldarga Diabetic Center, Wad Medani, Sudan in 2020.

Methods: This comprehensive study is based on primary data obtained via a longitudinal cross-section random sample of 400 patients with diabetes mellitus who presented to Aldarga Diabetic Health Center in Wad Medani Town, Gezira State, Sudan between September and December 2020. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The core questions included two main dimensions: sociodemographic variables and smoking. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software, v.20, using descriptive and inferential statistics, namely, frequency tables and graphs, showing the Chi-square test of the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables.

Results: Of the 400 participants, 96 were clearly diagnosed with foot ulcer giving a proportion of 33% in the sample. There was a statistically significant relationship between smoking and DFU. A Chi-square test was done to measure the relationship between smoking and foot ulcer, which was significant at P = 0.043.

Conclusion: Extensive awareness programs to control the negative effect of smoking in accelerating DFU and amputation are necessary.


prevalence of diabetic foot ulcer, diabetic, diabetic food ulceration, smoking

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